How to format your references using the Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Handyside A. Let parents decide. Nature. 2010;464:978–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lee J-H, Paull TT. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science. 2005;308:551–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stollewerk A, Schoppmeier M, Damen WGM. Involvement of Notch and Delta genes in spider segmentation. Nature. 2003;423:863–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ejlerskov KT, Jensen SM, Christensen LB, Ritz C, Michaelsen KF, Mølgaard C. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dickson EFG. Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Li H, editor. Radiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 2. 1st ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Koriche F. Learning to Assign Degrees of Belief in Relational Domains. In: Blockeel H, Ramon J, Shavlik J, Tadepalli P, editors. Inductive Logic Programming: 17th International Conference, ILP 2007, Corvallis, OR, USA, June 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 25–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. How We Are Listening To The Universe [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Automated Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: T-IMTEC-89-8.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cady SC. Successful student goal completion: A community college case study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Sempra Bid Tops Buffett in Billionaires’ Race for Energy Future. New York Times. 2017 Aug 21;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
AbbreviationCurr. Rev. Musculoskelet. Med.
ISSN (print)1935-973X
ISSN (online)1935-9748
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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