How to format your references using the Formosan Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Formosan Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. Winning universities set out to fulfil Japan’s plans for excellence. Nature. 2002;419(6907):547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vincent ACJ, Harris JM. Marine Science. Boundless no more. Science. 2014;346(6208):420-421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng Y, Ye Q, Shen W. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4915.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kimoto H, Haga S, Sato K, Touhara K. Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Nature. 2005;437(7060):898-901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam J. Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Labuhn D. Keine Panik Vor Thermodynamik!: Erfolg Und Spaß Im Klassischen „Dickbrettbohrerfach“ Des Ingenieurstudiums. 4., aktualisierte Auflage. (Romberg O, ed.). Vieweg+Teubner; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Anton C. An Improved Satisfiable SAT Generator Based on Random Subgraph Isomorphism. In: Butz C, Lingras P, eds. Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 24th Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Canadian AI 2011, St. John’s, Canada, May 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:44-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Formosan Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Find 108 Genetic Links To Schizophrenia. IFLScience. Published July 23, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker EC. Perceptions of Youth with Diabetes and Their Parents/Guardians about Youth Eating Habits and Nutrition-Related Difficulties. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Ghosts of Elections Past. New York Times. November 3, 2016:C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFormosan Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationFormos. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1682-606X

Other styles