How to format your references using the Formosan Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Formosan Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rando O. A biologist despairs over the difficulty of demonstrating heritability of chromatin states. Nature. 2008;454(7201):141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage AE, Drakesmith H. Genetics. The battle for iron. Science. 2014;346(6215):1299-1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng G-M, Wu L-A, Xing H-J. Symmetry restoration and quantumness reestablishment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6377.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lakes RS, Lee T, Bersie A, Wang YC. Extreme damping in composite materials with negative-stiffness inclusions. Nature. 2001;410(6828):565-567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lafontaine E, Comet M. Nanothermites. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Poole S, Hernandez O, Shamis P, eds. OpenSHMEM and Related Technologies. Experiences, Implementations, and Tools: First Workshop, OpenSHMEM 2014, Annapolis, MD, USA, March 4-6, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8356. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu X, Fernandes R, Jurisicova A, Casper RF, Sun Y. Cellular Force Measurement Using Computer Vision Microscopy and a Polymeric Microdevice. In: Clévy C, Rakotondrabe M, Chaillet N, eds. Signal Measurement and Estimation Techniques for Micro and Nanotechnology. New York, NY: Springer; 2011:133-151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Formosan Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Japan’s Whaling Gambit Shows It’s Time To Strengthen The Rule Of Science In Law. IFLScience. Published October 21, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Broadcast Exclusivity Rules: Effects of Elimination Would Depend on Other Federal Actions and Industry Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenzel AB. Learning the culture of teaching: A middle school perspective. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. At Goldman, Dim Results For Trading In Early 2017. New York Times. April 19, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFormosan Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationFormos. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1682-606X

Other styles