How to format your references using the Formosan Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Formosan Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cameron A. Eric H. Davidson (1937-2015). Nature. 2015;526(7572):196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ogawa W, Kasuga M. Cell signaling. Fat stress and liver resistance. Science. 2008;322(5907):1483-1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma H, Aihara K, Chen L. Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7464.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yan Y, Wang L-X, Ke X, et al. High-mobility Bi2Se3 nanoplates manifesting quantum oscillations of surface states in the sidewalls. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane D. The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Schäfer A-O. MRI of Rectal Cancer: Clinical Atlas. (Langer M, ed.). Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Shukla P, Karthik MVK. Results and Discussions. In: Karthik MVK, ed. Computational Approaches in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii for Effectual Bio-Hydrogen Production. SpringerBriefs in Systems Biology. Springer India; 2015:17-28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Formosan Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. Watch A Tapir Scratch An Itch With His Enormous, Prehensile Penis. IFLScience. Published July 31, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA ADP Systems: Information on the Automated Mission and Payload Tracking System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capobianco VJ. Effect of slot height variation on the aerodynamic performance of a circulation control airfoil: A CFD analysis. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Gridiron and Steel Toughened Judge In Clemens Case. New York Times. March 3, 2011:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFormosan Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationFormos. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)1682-606X

Other styles