How to format your references using the Food Webs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Webs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T., 2004. Starting from scratch. Nature 430, 113.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walter, P., Ron, D., 2011. The unfolded protein response: from stress pathway to homeostatic regulation. Science 334, 1081–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan, X., Liu, F., Zhang, M., 2012. Comment on “Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness.” Science 335, 1441; author reply 1441.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ji, H., Ehrlich, L.I.R., Seita, J., Murakami, P., Doi, A., Lindau, P., Lee, H., Aryee, M.J., Irizarry, R.A., Kim, K., Rossi, D.J., Inlay, M.A., Serwold, T., Karsunky, H., Ho, L., Daley, G.Q., Weissman, I.L., Feinberg, A.P., 2010. Comprehensive methylome map of lineage commitment from haematopoietic progenitors. Nature 467, 338–342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, M.K., Lee, D., Martin, W.L., Tsou, H., Yan, T.-Y., 2005. Bandwidth-Efficient Digital Modulation with Application to Deep Space Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ganascia, J.-G., Lenca, P., Petit, J.-M. (Eds.), 2012. Discovery Science: 15th International Conference, DS 2012, Lyon, France, October 29-31, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rainieri, S., Zambonelli, C., 2009. Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production, in: Solieri, L., Giudici, P. (Eds.), Vinegars of the World. Springer, Milano, pp. 73–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Webs.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Replacing The Moon With Other Planets [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Competitive Financing Mechanisms: Auctions Used by Federal Agencies (No. HEHS-99-57R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake, D.A., 2013. Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, I. by B., 2016. Life on Tour With a Little One in Tow. New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman, 2004; Walter and Ron, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Walter and Ron, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ji et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Webs
AbbreviationFood Webs
ISSN (print)2352-2496

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