How to format your references using the Food Webs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Webs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2004. Glittering prizes. Nature 428, 676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, M.S., White, M.C., 2007. A predictably selective aliphatic C-H oxidation reaction for complex molecule synthesis. Science 318, 783–787.
A journal article with 3 authors
Srianand, R., Petitjean, P., Ledoux, C., 2000. The cosmic microwave background radiation temperature at a redshift of 2.34. Nature 408, 931–935.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsumoto, T., Hoga, M., Ohyagi, Y., Ishikawa, M., Naruse, M., Hanaki, K., Suzuki, R., Sekiguchi, D., Tate, N., Ohtsu, M., 2014. Nano-artifact metrics based on random collapse of resist. Sci. Rep. 4, 6142.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Y., 2012. Practical Database Programming with Visual Basic.NET. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Butler, M., Jones, C.B., Romanovsky, A., Troubitsyna, E. (Eds.), 2006. Rigorous Development of Complex Fault-Tolerant Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheah, Y.-L., Toh, G.C.-H., Heng, J.-W., Wee, E.W.-L., 2015. Transdisciplinary Management of Perioperative Nutrition, in: Tan, K.-Y. (Ed.), Transdisciplinary Perioperative Care in Colorectal Surgery: An Integrative Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Webs.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. 425-Million-Year-Old Parasite Found Still Attached To Its Victim [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Multibillion Dollar Investments in Operations and Maintenance (No. GAO-14-66). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tahira, A., 2017. Synthesis of Bivalent Organothiophosphate Inhibitors and Their Inhibition of Butyrylcholinesterase: Studies towards a Potential Treatment of Cognitive Loss Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2004. World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Plan First Joint Military Exercise. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and White, 2007; Powell, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and White, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsumoto et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Webs
AbbreviationFood Webs
ISSN (print)2352-2496

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