How to format your references using the Food Webs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Webs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leigh, G.J., 2003. Chemistry. So that’s how it’s done--maybe. Science 301, 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo, K., Haglund, R.F., Jr, 2014. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator. Sci. Rep. 4, 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimov, S.A., Schuur, E.A.G., Chapin, F.S., 3rd, 2006. Climate change. Permafrost and the global carbon budget. Science 312, 1612–1613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burmester, T., Weich, B., Reinhardt, S., Hankeln, T., 2000. A vertebrate globin expressed in the brain. Nature 407, 520–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krabbes, G., Fuchs, G., Canders, W.-R., May, H., Palka, R., 2006. High Temperature Superconductor Bulk Materials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Chebat, J.-C., Oumlil, A.B. (Eds.), 2015. Proceedings of the 1998 Multicultural Marketing Conference, Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Bishop, C., 2016. Domestic Violence: The Limitations of a Legal Response, in: Hilder, S., Bettinson, V. (Eds.), Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Webs.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Nepal Is At Risk From Another Big Earthquake [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. K-12 Education: Education’s Experiences with Flexibility Waivers Could Inform Efforts to Assist States with New Requirements (No. GAO-16-650). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton, N.-Q., 2015. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2003. BP’s Deal With TNK Is Approved By Russia. New York Times W1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leigh, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014; Leigh, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Burmester et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Webs
AbbreviationFood Webs
ISSN (print)2352-2496

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