How to format your references using the Food Webs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Webs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2001. Imported stem cells deepen Germany’s ethical divide. Nature 412, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ye, B., Cramer, N., 2012. Chiral cyclopentadienyl ligands as stereocontrolling element in asymmetric C-H functionalization. Science 338, 504–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huo, C., Ouyang, J., Yang, H., 2014. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route. Sci. Rep. 4, 3682.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shi, Z., Zhang, Y., Cui, X., Zhuang, S., Wu, B., Dong, X., Zhang, B., Du, G., 2014. High-temperature continuous-wave laser realized in hollow microcavities. Sci. Rep. 4, 7180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover, L., 2013. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sasano, T., Suzuki, O. (Eds.), 2010. Interface Oral Health Science 2009. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Diakite, I., Chen-Charpentier, B.M., 2015. Effects of a Discrete Time Delay on an HIV Pandemic, in: Tost, G.O., Vasilieva, O. (Eds.), Analysis, Modelling, Optimization, and Numerical Techniques: ICAMI, San Andres Island, Colombia, November 2013, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Webs.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Awesome X-Ray Images Show A Python Breaking Down An Alligator [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 5 (No. 149426). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blankenship, K., 2017. An Analysis of Illinois Public School Funding a Descriptive Comparison of Equity: 2005 v. 2015 (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. As Colts Rested, Jets Awoke. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier, 2001; Ye and Cramer, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ye and Cramer, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Webs
AbbreviationFood Webs
ISSN (print)2352-2496

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