How to format your references using the European Journal of Combinatorics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Combinatorics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Brody, Haemophilia, Nature. 515 (2014) S157.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Shuster, B.P. Weiss, Martian surface paleotemperatures from thermochronology of meteorites, Science. 309 (2005) 594–600.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Spiegelhalter, M. Pearson, I. Short, Visualizing uncertainty about the future, Science. 333 (2011) 1393–1400.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Zhao, Z. Zhang, L. Wang, K. Xi, Q. Cao, D. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Du, Excellent microwave absorption property of Graphene-coated Fe nanocomposites, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Thiessen, Measuring the Real World, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, England, 1996.
An edited book
D.-Y. Park, ed., Legal Issues on Climate Change and International Trade Law, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Eskin, F. Hormozdiari, L. Conde, J. Riby, C. Skibola, E. Eskin, E. Halperin, eALPS: Estimating Abundance Levels in Pooled Sequencing Using Available Genotyping Data, in: M. Deng, R. Jiang, F. Sun, X. Zhang (Eds.), Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 17th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2013, Beijing, China, April 7-10, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 32–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Combinatorics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Carbon Emissions In The UK The Lowest Since 1894, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Force ADP: Depot Maintenance System Development Risks Are High, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Cong, Predictive models of cytotoxicity as mediated by exposure to environmental toxicants and drugs, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Forsythe, A. Stevenson, Murky Firm Is Behind A Donation Of $18 Billion, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Combinatorics
AbbreviationEur. J. Comb.
ISSN (print)0195-6698
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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