How to format your references using the EPJ Quantum Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Quantum Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rhee SG. Cell signaling. H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling. Science. 2006;312:1882–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Roberts L, Simpson S. Drug resistance. Deadly defiance. Introduction to special issue. Science. 2008;321:355.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Emile O, Le Floch A, Vollrath F. Biopolymers: shape memory in spider draglines. Nature. 2006;440:621.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen L, Jiao Z-H, Zheng L-S, Zhang Y-Y, Xie S-T, Wang Z-X, et al. Structural insight into the autoinhibition mechanism of AMP-activated protein kinase. Nature. 2009;459:1146–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Adamczyk B. Foundations of Electromagnetic Compatibility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Youssef AA. Nanometer CMOS RFICs for Mobile TV Applications. Haslett J, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gschwind T, Koehler J, Wong J. Applying Patterns during Business Process Modeling. In: Dumas M, Reichert M, Shan M-C, editors. Business Process Management: 6th International Conference, BPM 2008, Milan, Italy, September 2-4, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 4–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Quantum Technology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Deprivation And Poverty Leave Visible Marks On The Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Core Competencies in Financial Management for Information Technology Personnel Implementing Financial Systems in the Federal Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: JFMIP-ET-98-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Walker D. University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Thrush G, Kelly K, Haberman M. Widespread Cuts in Trump Budget Bypass Military. New York Times. 2017 Feb 26;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Quantum Technology
AbbreviationEPJ Quantum Technol.
ISSN (online)2196-0763

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