How to format your references using the Epigenomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gogotsi, Y. Materials science: Energy storage wrapped up. Nature 2014, 509, 568–570.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hale, M.S.; Rivkin, R.B. Comment on “Nature of phosphorus limitation in the ultraoligotrophic eastern Mediterranean.” Science 2006, 312, 1748; author reply 1748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bolmatov, D.; Musaev, E.T.; Trachenko, K. Symmetry breaking gives rise to energy spectra of three states of matter. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2794.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zelhof, A.C.; Hardy, R.W.; Becker, A.; Zuker, C.S. Transforming the architecture of compound eyes. Nature 2006, 443, 696–699.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spatschek, K.-H. High Temperature Plasmas; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527638116.
An edited book
Bartnik, R. Optimum Investment Strategy in the Power Industry: Mathematical Models; Bartnik, B., Hnydiuk-Stefan, A., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319318714.
A chapter in an edited book
Chien, J.-T. Topic Modeling for Speech and Language Processing. In Modern Methodology and Applications in Spatial-Temporal Modeling; Peters, G.W., Matsui, T., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Statistics; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2015; pp. 87–111 ISBN 9784431553380.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenomes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Have Fossil Fuels Officially Lost to Renewables? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit: Needs Projections Could Better Reflect Future Costs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do, N.H. An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. On the Town With a Fleet Week Newbie. New York Times 2016, ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenomes
ISSN (online)2075-4655

Other styles