How to format your references using the Epigenomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. Science Careers. Playing Well with Industry. Science 2008, 319, 1548–1551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Battisti, D.S.; Naylor, R.L. Historical Warnings of Future Food Insecurity with Unprecedented Seasonal Heat. Science 2009, 323, 240–244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, L.J.; Kuzmich, A.; Dogariu, A. Gain-Assisted Superluminal Light Propagation. Nature 2000, 406, 277–279.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schirmer, E.C.; Florens, L.; Guan, T.; Yates, J.R., 3rd; Gerace, L. Nuclear Membrane Proteins with Potential Disease Links Found by Subtractive Proteomics. Science 2003, 301, 1380–1382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, D.J. Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II; Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds: A Series Of Monographs; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471744122.
An edited book
Occupational Cancers; Anttila, S., Boffetta, P., Eds.; Springer: London, 2014; ISBN 9781447128243.
A chapter in an edited book
Avoine, G.; Carpent, X.; Martin, B. Strong Authentication and Strong Integrity (SASI) Is Not That Strong. In Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues: 6th International Workshop, RFIDSec 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, June 8-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers; Ors Yalcin, S.B., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 50–64 ISBN 9783642168215.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenomes.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Confirmation of Human Neanderthal Interbreeding Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: HUD Needs to Improve Key Project Management Practices for Its Modernization Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fine, J.G. Magical Transformation or Illusion of Grandeur: The Development of Downtown West Palm Beach, 1985-2015. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kimmelman, M. Brexit Clouds New Subway’s Promise. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenomes
ISSN (online)2075-4655

Other styles