How to format your references using the Epigenomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forró, L. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Beyond Gedanken Experiments. Science 2000, 289, 560–561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, A.J.; Schwappach, B. Cell Biology. Think Vesicular Chloride. Science 2010, 328, 1364–1365.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, B.A.; Bikson, T.K.; Gunn, P.P. Science and Law. Human Subjects Protection and Research on Terrorism and Conflict. Science 2013, 340, 434–435.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chiarucci, R.; Madeo, D.; Loffredo, M.I.; Castellani, E.; Santarcangelo, E.L.; Mocenni, C. Cross-Evidence for Hypnotic Susceptibility through Nonlinear Measures on EEGs of Non-Hypnotized Subjects. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, M. SolidWorks® Administration Bible; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009; ISBN 9781118257760.
An edited book
Yilbas, B.S. Laser Surface Processing and Model Studies; Shuja, S.Z., Ed.; Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642366284.
A chapter in an edited book
Audeh, B.; Beaune, P.; Beigbeder, M. Recall-Oriented Evaluation for Information Retrieval Systems. In Multidisciplinary Information Retrieval: 6th Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2013, Limassol, Cyprus, October 7-9, 2013. Proceedings; Lupu, M., Kanoulas, E., Loizides, F., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 29–32 ISBN 9783642410567.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenomes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Good News For The Only Place On Earth Where Tigers, Rhinos, Orangutans And Elephants Live Together Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office GAO Research Guide: Computers and Information Technology Issues; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Humphreys, B.P. The Role of Developmental Screening Practices in Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analysis of All-Payer Claims Data in New Hampshire. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. Spurring Urban Growth in Vancouver, One Family at a Time. New York Times 2005, 1111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenomes
ISSN (online)2075-4655

Other styles