How to format your references using the Environmental Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leisinger K. (2015) Business needs to embrace sustainability targets. Nature 528: 165
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale J. E. & Li Y.-G. (2003) Damage to the shallow Landers fault from the nearby Hector Mine earthquake. Nature 421: 524–526
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarano F., Guimarães A. & da Silva J. M. (2012) Rio+20: Lead by example. Nature 486: 25–26
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Straight A. F., Cheung A., Limouze J., Chen I., Westwood N. J., Sellers J. R. & Mitchison T. J. (2003) Dissecting temporal and spatial control of cytokinesis with a myosin II Inhibitor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 1743–1747

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wills B. (2016) Purposely Profitable. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Iosifidis P. (2016) Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond. ed. M. Wheeler London: Palgrave Macmillan UK
A chapter in an edited book
Oh S.-C. & Hildreth A. J. (2016) Energy Decision-Making 2: Demand Response Option Contract Decision Based on Stochastic Programming. In: Analytics for Smart Energy Management: Tools and Applications for Sustainable Manufacturing, ed. A. J. Hildreth, pp. 109–135. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew D. (2017) How To Talk To Your Dog – According To Science [WWW document]. IFLScience URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Insurance Regulation: The Insurance Regulatory Information System Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theis J. Y. (2013) Accessing mental health services among Asian American adults: Evidence from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K. (2016) An Orangutan Expert Advises Visiting Now. New York Times: TR2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leisinger, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Leisinger, 2015; Vidale & Li, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vidale & Li, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Straight et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Conservation
AbbreviationEnviron. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0376-8929
ISSN (online)1469-4387
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Water Science and Technology

Other styles