How to format your references using the Environmental Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp M. (2003) Science in culture. Nature 424: 618
A journal article with 2 authors
Dell’Anno A. & Danovaro R. (2005) Extracellular DNA plays a key role in deep-sea ecosystem functioning. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 2179
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravi M., Marimuthu M. P. A. & Siddiqi I. (2008) Gamete formation without meiosis in Arabidopsis. Nature 451: 1121–1124
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Kogar A., Rak M. S., Vig S., Husain A. A., Flicker F., Joe Y. I., Venema L., MacDougall G. J., Chiang T. C., Fradkin E., van Wezel J. & Abbamonte P. (2017) Signatures of exciton condensation in a transition metal dichalcogenide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 358: 1314–1317

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry M. & Landuyt G. (2010) The Future of Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Singh M., Bisht I. S. & Dutta M. eds. (2014) Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes. New Delhi: Springer India
A chapter in an edited book
Cohen-Solal J. F. G., Jeganathan V., Grimaldi C. M., Peeva E. & Diamond B. (2006) Sex Hormones and SLE: Influencing the Fate of Autoreactive B Cells. In: Current Concepts in Autoimmunity and Chronic Inflammation, eds. A. Radbruch & P. E. Lipsky, pp. 67–88. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Conservation.

Blog post
Hamilton K. (2015) NASA To Use Hoverboard Technology To Control CubeSats In Space [WWW document]. IFLScience URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Commercial Motor Vehicles: Significant Actions Remain to Improve Truck Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baumgarten D. K. (2013) An Examination of the Relationship between Collegiate Student-Athlete’s Leadership Role in the Athletic Setting and Their Academic Success.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Koblin J. & Grynbaum M. M. (2017) An Anchor Becomes the News. New York Times: B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp, 2003; Dell’Anno & Danovaro, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dell’Anno & Danovaro, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kogar et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Conservation
AbbreviationEnviron. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0376-8929
ISSN (online)1469-4387
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Water Science and Technology

Other styles