How to format your references using the Environmental Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lerner LS (2000) Good and bad science in US schools. Nature 407: 287–290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fiete GA, de Lozanne A (2010) Physics. Seeing quantum fractals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 652–653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li W-W, Yu H-Q, Rittmann BE (2015) Chemistry: Reuse water pollutants. Nature 528: 29–31.
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Porter JR, Challinor A, Ewert F, Falloon P, Fischer T, Gregory P, et al. (2010) Food security: focus on agriculture. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 172–173.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matloff R, Chaillou JH (2013) Nonprofit Investment and Development Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Demirkan H, Spohrer JC, Krishna V eds (2011) The Science of Service Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Miller KB, Bergsten J (2014) Predaceous Diving Beetle Sexual Systems. In: DA Yee (ed.), Ecology, Systematics, and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), pp. 199–233. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Conservation.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Cancer Patient’s Leg Attached To His Arm To Keep It Alive During Surgery [WWW document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Accuracy and Reliability of Investment Information [WWW document]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiss PJ (2009) Effects of dedicated academic support services on the persistence rates of California Community College student-athletes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2017) Dempsey’s Hat Trick Seals a Win and Steadies a World Cup Campaign. New York Times: SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lerner, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lerner, 2000, Fiete, de Lozanne, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fiete, de Lozanne, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Porter et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Conservation
AbbreviationEnviron. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0376-8929
ISSN (online)1469-4387
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Water Science and Technology

Other styles