How to format your references using the Environmental Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. (2015) Epigenetics: The genome unwrapped. Nature 528: S12-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurnett D. A. & Kurth W. S. (2005) Electron plasma oscillations upstream of the solar wind termination shock. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 2025–2027
A journal article with 3 authors
Osi A., Butler R. J. & Weishampel D. B. (2010) A Late Cretaceous ceratopsian dinosaur from Europe with Asian affinities. Nature 465: 466–468
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Imai S., Tsuge N., Tomotake M., Nagatome Y., Sawada H., Nagata T. & Kumagai H. (2002) Plant biochemistry: an onion enzyme that makes the eyes water. Nature 419: 685

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raeburn D. (2016) Greek Tragedies as Plays for Performance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Gelbukh A. F. ed. (2011) Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 12th International Conference, CICLing 2011, Tokyo, Japan, February 20-26, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Seki S. & Matano T. (2013) Development of Vaccines Using SeV Vectors Against AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases. In: Sendai Virus Vector: Advantages and Applications, ed. Y. Nagai, pp. 127–149. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2015) Baboons Don’t Play Follow The Leader – They’re Democratic Travellers [WWW document]. IFLScience URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoefer P. D. (2010) A David against Goliath: The American veterans committee’s challenge to the American legion in the 1950s.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. (2017) Triumph and Tragedy by the Numbers. New York Times: AR22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ledford, 2015; Gurnett & Kurth, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gurnett & Kurth, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Imai et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Conservation
AbbreviationEnviron. Conserv.
ISSN (print)0376-8929
ISSN (online)1469-4387
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Water Science and Technology

Other styles