How to format your references using the Electrochemistry Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electrochemistry Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, Big data: The power of petabytes, Nature. 527 (2015) S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-B. Kwon, B.L. Sabatini, Glutamate induces de novo growth of functional spines in developing cortex, Nature. 474 (2011) 100–104.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.G. Parker, L. Kruglyak, E.A. Ostrander, Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a putative dog clone, Nature. 440 (2006) E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Liu, C. Lu, S. Twigg, M. Ghaffari, J. Lin, N. Winograd, Q.M. Zhang, Direct observation of ion distributions near electrodes in ionic polymer actuators containing ionic liquids, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 973.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Solomon, The Art of Client Service, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
J. Rojo, ed., Selected Works of E. L. Lehmann, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Juth, C. Munthe, Screening – How?, in: C. Munthe (Ed.), The Ethics of Screening in Health Care and Medicine: Serving Society or Serving the Patient?, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electrochemistry Communications.

Blog post
T. Hale, The Best Snaps From The Wildlife Photographer Of The Year 2015, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Regulatory Efforts to Ensure Financial Institution Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.C. Rogers, Documenting cultural transition through contact archaeology in Tíhoo, Mérida, Yucatán, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Meier, K. Musick, Is the Family Dinner Overrated?, New York Times. (2012) SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectrochemistry Communications
AbbreviationElectrochem. commun.
ISSN (print)1388-2481

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