How to format your references using the Ecosystem Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P., 2001. Funding bonanza for astronomy and biotech in Australia. Nature 412, 846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, P., Hanahan, D., 2009. Cancer. Breaching the cancer fortress. Science 324, 1400–1401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yabuta, N.H., Sawatari, A., Callaway, E.M., 2001. Two functional channels from primary visual cortex to dorsal visual cortical areas. Science 292, 297–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ikegami, M., Uemura, T., Kishioka, A., Sakimura, K., Mishina, M., 2014. Striatal dopamine D1 receptor is essential for contextual fear conditioning. Sci. Rep. 4, 3976.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labuszewski, J.W., Nyhoff, J.E., Co, R., Peterson, P.E., 2010. The CME Group Risk Management Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Huang, F., Sugimoto, A. (Eds.), 2014. Image and Video Technology – PSIVT 2013 Workshops: GCCV 2013, GPID 2013, PAESNPR 2013, and QACIVA 2013, Guanajuato, Mexico, October 28-29, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chernousko, F.L., Ananievski, I.M., Reshmin, S.A., 2008. Stability based control for Lagrangian mechanical systems, in: Ananievski, I.M., Reshmin, S.A. (Eds.), Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems: Methods and Applications, Communications and Control Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 147–155.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Explainer: What Is Microgravity? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Airport Capacity: Synopses of Major Studies (No. RCED-92-117FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, W., 2010. “Straight Talk” on preventing HIV program—a grant thesis project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M., 2017. Rebuked Twice by Supreme Court, North Carolina Republicans Are Unfazed. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pockley, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Olson and Hanahan, 2009; Pockley, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson and Hanahan, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ikegami et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Services
AbbreviationEcosyst. Serv.
ISSN (print)2212-0416
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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