How to format your references using the Ecosystem Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kibble, T., 2014. Gerald Guralnik (1936-2014). Nature 510, 36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo, K., Haglund, R.F., Jr, 2014. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator. Sci. Rep. 4, 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kunchulia, M., Pilz, K.S., Herzog, M.H., 2014. Small effects of smoking on visual spatiotemporal processing. Sci. Rep. 4, 7316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Osterwalder, M., Barozzi, I., Tissières, V., Fukuda-Yuzawa, Y., Mannion, B.J., Afzal, S.Y., Lee, E.A., Zhu, Y., Plajzer-Frick, I., Pickle, C.S., Kato, M., Garvin, T.H., Pham, Q.T., Harrington, A.N., Akiyama, J.A., Afzal, V., Lopez-Rios, J., Dickel, D.E., Visel, A., Pennacchio, L.A., 2018. Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development. Nature 554, 239–243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lalanne, C., 2014. Sinusoidal Vibration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hunsinger, J., Klastrup, L., Allen, M. (Eds.), 2010. International Handbook of Internet Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Santos, L.D., Martins, I., 2013. The Monitoring System on Quality of Life of the City of Porto, in: Sirgy, M.J., Phillips, R., Rahtz, D. (Eds.), Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases VI. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 77–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Services.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Over 300 Reindeer Struck Dead By Lightning In Norway [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program (No. GAO-05-865). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck, M.C., 2017. You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1994. The President’s Past. New York Times 620.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kibble, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014; Kibble, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Osterwalder et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Services
AbbreviationEcosyst. Serv.
ISSN (print)2212-0416
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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