How to format your references using the Ecosystem Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baltensperger, U., 2010. Atmospheric science. Aerosols in clearer focus. Science 329, 1474–1475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kourtzi, Z., Kanwisher, N., 2001. Representation of perceived object shape by the human lateral occipital complex. Science 293, 1506–1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagner, C.E., Harmon, L.J., Seehausen, O., 2012. Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiation. Nature 487, 366–369.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S., Sanderson, M.W., White, B.J., Amrine, D.E., Lanzas, C., 2013. Temporal-spatial heterogeneity in animal-environment contact: implications for the exposure and transmission of pathogens. Sci. Rep. 3, 3112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell, C., 2006. Trustee Investment Strategy for Endowments and Foundations. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Akbarnia, B.A., Yazici, M., Thompson, G.H. (Eds.), 2016. The Growing Spine: Management of Spinal Disorders in Young Children, 2nd ed. 2016. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Young, I.M., 2010. Responsibility and Global Labor Justice, in: Ognjenovic, G. (Ed.), Responsibility in Context: Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 53–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Control Brain Cells Using Sound Waves [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program (No. GAO-05-752R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schlumbrecht, C.E., 2015. Do Negative Experiences Influence Substance Use in Adolescent Males and Females? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Letter of the Law 1, Proportion 0. New York Times SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baltensperger, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baltensperger, 2010; Kourtzi and Kanwisher, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kourtzi and Kanwisher, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Services
AbbreviationEcosyst. Serv.
ISSN (print)2212-0416
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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