How to format your references using the Ecosystem Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palmer, T., 2014. Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models. Nature 515, 338–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stroscio, J.A., Celotta, R.J., 2004. Controlling the dynamics of a single atom in lateral atom manipulation. Science 306, 242–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geremia, J.M., Stockton, J.K., Mabuchi, H., 2004. Real-time quantum feedback control of atomic spin-squeezing. Science 304, 270–273.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hayden, S.M., Mook, H.A., Dai, P., Perring, T.G., Doğan, F., 2004. The structure of the high-energy spin excitations in a high-transition-temperature superconductor. Nature 429, 531–534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pietersen, W., 2010. Strategic Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Förster, K.-H., Jonas, P., Langer, H., Trunk, C. (Eds.), 2007. Operator Theory in Inner Product Spaces, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Arshad, S., 2016. The Relationship Between Islamic Stock Markets and Business Cycles: A Regional Perspective, in: Alam, N., Rizvi, S.A.R. (Eds.), Islamic Capital Markets: Volatility, Performance and Stability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Graphene Is Missing Ingredient To Help Supercharge Batteries For Life On The Move [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Improved Reporting Needed on National Aeronautics and Space Administration Projects (No. PSAD-77-54). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zohourian, M., 2015. Supply Chain Decision Making Under Demand Uncertainty and the Use of Control Systems: A Correlational Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Bipartisan Bill Poses Federal Control Over Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Affairs. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palmer, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Palmer, 2014; Stroscio and Celotta, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stroscio and Celotta, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hayden et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Services
AbbreviationEcosyst. Serv.
ISSN (print)2212-0416
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

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