How to format your references using the Ecosystem Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lu, K., 2014. Nanomaterials. Making strong nanomaterials ductile with gradients. Science 345, 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yea, S.S., Fruman, D.A., 2011. Cell signaling. New mTOR targets Grb attention. Science 332, 1270–1271.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thulasiram, H.V., Erickson, H.K., Poulter, C.D., 2007. Chimeras of two isoprenoid synthases catalyze all four coupling reactions in isoprenoid biosynthesis. Science 316, 73–76.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gil, L., Fuentes-Utrilla, P., Soto, A., Cervera, M.T., Collada, C., 2004. Phylogeography: English elm is a 2,000-year-old Roman clone. Nature 431, 1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troffaes, M.C.M., Cooman, G. de, 2014. Lower Previsions: Troffaes/Lower Previsions, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhou, W., 2016. Stability and Synchronization Control of Stochastic Neural Networks, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Harris, K., 2010. Selling and Building Linked Data: Drive Value and Gain Momentum, in: Wood, D. (Ed.), Linking Enterprise Data. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Women Who Have Children Older, Live Longer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Business Systems Modernization: IRS Needs to Complete Recent Efforts to Develop Policies and Procedures to Guide Requirements Development and Management (No. GAO-06-310). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miles, C.S., 2015. Elicitation of a Program’s Behaviors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2003. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Judge From 1993 Standoff Returns To Post. New York Times A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lu, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lu, 2014; Yea and Fruman, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yea and Fruman, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gil et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Services
AbbreviationEcosyst. Serv.
ISSN (print)2212-0416
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles