How to format your references using the Ecological Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. L. 2007. How the LHC came to be. Nature 448:281–284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brisson, J. A., and S. V. Nuzhdin. 2008. Rarity of males in pea aphids results in mutational decay. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319:58.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rocha, P. P., J. Chaumeil, and J. A. Skok. 2013. Molecular biology. Finding the right partner in a 3D genome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 342:1333–1334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Paparo, G. D., M. Müller, F. Comellas, and M. A. Martin-Delgado. 2013. Quantum Google in a complex network. Scientific reports 3:2773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogg, R. M., and R. D. Fulk. 2011. A Grammar of Old English. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Bonavida, B., editor. 2013. Resistance to Immunotherapeutic Antibodies in Cancer: Strategies to Overcome Resistance. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, D. J., and D. Zhang. 2011. The Effects of Sense of Presence, Sense of Belonging, and Cognitive Absorption on Satisfaction and User Loyalty toward an Immersive 3D Virtual World. Pages 30–43 in R. Sharman, H. R. Rao, and T. S. Raghu, editors. Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business: 8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017, February 10. Science Says Couples In Lasting Relationships Typically wait This Long To Start Having Sex. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Status of Tax Systems Modernization, Tax Delinquencies, and the Potential for Return-Free Filing. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carolina, D. S. 2009. A qualitative study of the healthcare experiences and health information acquisition of African American men. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2011, March 6. Underdog’s Feat Is Inspiration for Cricket’s Dreamers. New York Times:SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2007, Brisson and Nuzhdin 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brisson and Nuzhdin 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Paparo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Applications
AbbreviationEcol. Appl.
ISSN (print)1051-0761
ISSN (online)1939-5582

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