How to format your references using the Ecological Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berkley, S. 2015. Share the risks of Ebola vaccine development. Nature 519:263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humler, E., and J. Besse. 2002. A correlation between mid-ocean-ridge basalt chemistry and distance to continents. Nature 419:607–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Valkenburgh, B., X. Wang, and J. Damuth. 2004. Cope’s rule, hypercarnivory, and extinction in North American canids. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306:101–104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, H., P. Bourges, Y. Sidis, C. Ulrich, L. P. Regnault, S. Pailhès, N. S. Berzigiarova, N. N. Kolesnikov, and B. Keimer. 2002. Magnetic resonant mode in the single-layer high-temperature superconductor Tl2Ba2CuO(6+delta). Science (New York, N.Y.) 295:1045–1047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norris, L. 2014. Transplant Administration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Taillefer, M., and D. Ma, editors. 2013. Amination and Formation of sp2 C-N Bonds. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Narayana Swamy, B. K., and Y. Nagaraju. 2016. Methodological Issues in Social Science Research for Bioresource Conservation and Livelihood Development Under Global Climate Change. Pages 65–81 in S. Nautiyal, R. Schaldach, K. V. Raju, H. Kaechele, B. Pritchard, and K. S. Rao, editors. Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, June 9. Crowdsourcing The Serengeti: How Citizen Scientists Classified Millions Of Photos From Home. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Commercial Aviation: Airline Industry Contraction Due to Volatile Fuel Prices and Falling Demand Affects Airports, Passengers, and Federal Government Revenues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alla, B. 2017. Wellbore Stability Analysis of Sanish Field using 3-D Finite Element Model: Bakken Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017, April 12. Cespedes Serves as Grand Marshal in the Mets’ Home Run Parade. New York Times:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berkley 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Humler and Besse 2002, Berkley 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Humler and Besse 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Applications
AbbreviationEcol. Appl.
ISSN (print)1051-0761
ISSN (online)1939-5582

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