How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, B.: Astronomy. The link between supernovae and gamma ray bursts, Science, 308(5726), 1265–1266, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chatterjee, S. and Callaway, E. M.: Parallel colour-opponent pathways to primary visual cortex, Nature, 426(6967), 668–671, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonzales, E. B., Kawate, T. and Gouaux, E.: Pore architecture and ion sites in acid-sensing ion channels and P2X receptors, Nature, 460(7255), 599–604, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Patanè, D., De Gori, P., Chiarabba, C. and Bonaccorso, A.: Magma ascent and the pressurization of Mount Etna’s volcanic system, Science, 299(5615), 2061–2063, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheer, J.: Failed Bridges, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany., 2010.
An edited book
Schramm, A.: Navigational Surgery of the Facial Skeleton, edited by N.-C. Gellrich and R. Schmelzeisen, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kunche, P. and Reddy, K. V. V. S.: Speech Enhancement Approach Based on Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO), in Metaheuristic Applications to Speech Enhancement, edited by K. V. V. S. Reddy, pp. 39–60, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Getting Serious About Funny: Psychologists See Humor As A Character Strength, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, N. N.: The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tommasini, A., Oestreich, J. R., da FONSECA-WOLLHEIM, C., Allen, D., Cooper, M. and Woolfe, Z.: For Classical Fans, Boxed Sets and Beyond, New York Times, 24th November, C13, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chatterjee and Callaway, 2003; Schmidt, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chatterjee and Callaway, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Patanè et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

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