How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peters, S. E.: Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record, Nature, 454, 626–629, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewenstein, M. and Sanpera, A.: Physics. Probing quantum magnetism with cold atoms, Science, 319, 292–293, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng, Y.-N., Wu, X.-C., and Ji, Q.: Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young, Nature, 432, 383–386, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wild, M., Gilgen, H., Roesch, A., Ohmura, A., Long, C. N., Dutton, E. G., Forgan, B., Kallis, A., Russak, V., and Tsvetkov, A.: From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth’s surface, Science, 308, 847–850, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gee, S.: Fraud and Fraud Detection, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Pan, Z., Cheok, A. D., Müller, W., and Rhalibi, A. E. (Eds.): Transactions on Edutainment II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 313 p pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Eichstädt, T.: Applying Auction Theory to Procurement Auctions – An Empirical Study Among German Corporations, in: Negotiation, Auctions, and Market Engineering: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 12-17, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, edited by: Gimpel, H., Jennings, N. R., Kersten, G. E., Ockenfels, A., and Weinhardt, C., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 58–67, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
New Contraceptive Lasts For Three Months And Protects Against HIV And Pregnancy:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Homeland Security: OMB’s Temporary Cessation of Information Technology Funding for New Investments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reilly, J. M.: The role of public opinion in China’s Japan policy: 1997–2007, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan, J.: Ladies’ Man, New York Times, 23rd August, MM44, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peters, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Peters, 2008; Lewenstein and Sanpera, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lewenstein and Sanpera, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wild et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

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