How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Charron, D. J.: Obituary: Jean Dausset (1916-2009), Nature, 460, 338, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boughn, S. and Crittenden, R.: A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure in the Universe, Nature, 427, 45–47, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Geng, W. T., Wang, J.-S., and Olson, G. B.: Comment on “Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system,” Science, 309, 1677; author reply 1677, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Chendrimada, T. P., Gregory, R. I., Kumaraswamy, E., Norman, J., Cooch, N., Nishikura, K., and Shiekhattar, R.: TRBP recruits the Dicer complex to Ago2 for microRNA processing and gene silencing, Nature, 436, 740–744, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holloway, M. and Nwaoha, C.: Dictionary of Industrial Terms, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Meislin, R. J. and Halbrecht, J. (Eds.): Complications in Knee and Shoulder Surgery: Management and Treatment Options for the Sports Medicine Orthopedist, Springer, London, XIV, 280 p. 414 illus., 279 illus. in color pp., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez-Valpuesta, I.: Ansae in Barred Galaxies, Observations and Simulations, in: Chaos in Astronomy: Conference 2007, edited by: Contopoulos, G. and Patsis, P. A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 45–52, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Live From The International Space Station!, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Progress in Improving Its Financial Condition Has Been Mixed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam, N. N.: The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs, New York Times, 8th September, AR72, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Charron, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Charron, 2009; Boughn and Crittenden, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boughn and Crittenden, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chendrimada et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

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