How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barry, C. E.: Tuberculosis: Drug discovery goes au naturel, Nature, 506, 436–437, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doyle, J. and Csete, M.: Rules of engagement, Nature, 446, 860, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams, J. R., Dicarlo, L., and Marcus, C. M.: Quantum Hall effect in a gate-controlled p-n junction of graphene, Science, 317, 638–641, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Xia, J., Zhang, Y., Qian, J., Zhu, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., and Zhao, G.: Isolation, identification and expression of specific human CD133 antibodies, Sci. Rep., 3, 3320, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dosil, J.: Eating Disorders in Athletes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England, 2008.
An edited book
Ferrarese, G. and Bini, D. (Eds.): Introduction to Relativistic Continuum Mechanics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 340 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Tronti, L.: The July Protocol and Economic Growth: The Chance Missed, in: Social Pacts, Employment and Growth: A Reappraisal of Ezio Tarantelli’s Thought, edited by: Acocella, N. and Leoni, R., Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 69–95, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Unburnable Carbon: Why We Need To Leave Fossil Fuels In The Ground:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Shuttle: Follow-up Evaluation of NASA’s Solid Rocket Motor Procurement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, B.: Essays in the Dynamics Bayesian Models in Marketing, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I. P.: Dogwood at Valley Forge, New York Times, 7th May, BOOKS ART22, 1935.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barry, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Barry, 2014; Doyle and Csete, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doyle and Csete, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Xia et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

Other styles