How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Churchland, P. S.: Self-representation in nervous systems, Science, 296(5566), 308–310, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bullock, S. L. and Ish-Horowicz, D.: Conserved signals and machinery for RNA transport in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis, Nature, 414(6864), 611–616, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Convertito, V., Catalli, F. and Emolo, A.: Combining stress transfer and source directivity: the case of the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence, Sci. Rep., 3, 3114, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Koelle, K., Rodó, X., Pascual, M., Yunus, M. and Mostafa, G.: Refractory periods and climate forcing in cholera dynamics, Nature, 436(7051), 696–700, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
zur Hausen, H.: Infections Causing Human Cancer, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG., 2006.
An edited book
Oppen, M. J. H. van and Lough, J. M., Eds.: Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Iwahori, Y., Tatematsu, K., Nakamura, T., Fukui, S., Woodham, R. J. and Kasugai, K.: 3D Shape Recovery from Endoscope Image Based on Both Photometric and Geometric Constraints, in Knowledge-Based Information Systems in Practice, edited by J. W. Tweedale, L. C. Jain, J. Watada, and R. J. Howlett, pp. 65–80, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Deer Photographed Gnawing On Human Remains For The First Time, IFLScience, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Balancing Flexibility and Accountability: Grant Program Design in Education and Other Areas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krometis, L.-A. H.: Microbial partitioning in urban stormwaters, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC., 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K.: World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Border Accord With Russia, New York Times, 29th January, A6, 2003.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Churchland, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bullock and Ish-Horowicz, 2001; Churchland, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bullock and Ish-Horowicz, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Koelle et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

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