How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padian, K.: Palaeontology: Dinosaur up in the air, Nature, 521, 40–41, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, Q. and Wang, X.: Opinion dynamics with similarity-based random neighbors, Sci. Rep., 3, 2968, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russo, R., Herrmann, H. J., and de Arcangelis, L.: Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity, Sci. Rep., 4, 4312, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Nian, Q., Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, J., Zhang, M. Y., Shao, J., Tang, L., and Cheng, G. J.: Direct laser writing of nanodiamond films from graphite under ambient conditions, Sci. Rep., 4, 6612, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, D.: A Networking Approach to Grid Computing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
Zaman, H. B., Robinson, P., Petrou, M., Olivier, P., Shih, T. K., Velastin, S., and Nyström, I. (Eds.): Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XX, 431 p pp., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Skeen, J.: Predator–Prey Relationships: What Humans Can Learn from Horses about Being Whole, in: The Psychology of the Human-Animal Bond: A Resource for Clinicians and Researchers, edited by: Blazina, C., Boyraz, G., and Shen-Miller, D., Springer, New York, NY, 81–106, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Mastodons Disappeared from the Arctic 50 Millennia Earlier Than We Thought:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Audit by the District of Columbia’s Office of Municipal Audit and Inspection of the Expenditure of Funds by the District of Columbia Public Schools During Fiscal Years 1970 and 1971, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huger Marsh, D. P.: Perspectives of disciplinary problems and practices in elementary schools, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R.: Trump Advisers Call for More Troops to Break Deadlock in Afghan War, New York Times, 9th May, A4, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Padian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Padian, 2015; Liu and Wang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Wang, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nian et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2190-4995

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