How to format your references using the Documenta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Documenta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker RJ (2000) Earth science. The extraterrestrial wedding ring. Nature 406:359–360
A journal article with 2 authors
Belcher CM, McElwain JC (2008) Limits for combustion in low O2 redefine paleoatmospheric predictions for the Mesozoic. Science 321:1197–1200
A journal article with 3 authors
Baulch HM, Stanley EH, Bernhardt ES (2011) Can algal uptake stop NO3(-) pollution? Nature 477:E3; discussion E3-4
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lippert C, Listgarten J, Davidson RI, et al (2013) An exhaustive epistatic SNP association analysis on expanded Wellcome Trust data. Sci Rep 3:1099

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote M, Hillier J, Mitchell-Wallace K, Jones M (2017) Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
da Silva LFM (2012) Advances in Numerical Modeling of Adhesive Joints. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Squicciarini A, Bhargav-Spantzel A, Czeskis A, Bertino E (2006) Traceable and Automatic Compliance of Privacy Policies in Federated Digital Identity Management. In: Danezis G, Golle P (eds) Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 6th International Workshop, PET 2006, Cambridge, UK, June 28-30, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 78–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Documenta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Newly Described Orchid Has A Tiny Demon At Its Center. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984) NASA’s Requirement for a Single Solid Rocket Refurbishment and Assembly Facility at Kennedy Space Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shelton-Quinn A (2009) Increasing positive peer reporting and on -task behavior using a peer monitoring interdependent group contingency program with public posting. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) Fox Sidelines Legal Analyst After Wiretap Allegation. New York Times B4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDocumenta Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationDoc. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0012-4486
ISSN (online)1573-2622
Physiology (medical)
Sensory Systems

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