How to format your references using the Documenta Ophthalmologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Documenta Ophthalmologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins JJ (2009) Journal club. A bioengineer gets schooled by Escherichia coli. Nature 460:155
A journal article with 2 authors
Yewdell JW, Ince WL (2012) Virology. Frameshifting to PA-X influenza. Science 337:164–165
A journal article with 3 authors
Kang M-K, Kim SJ, Kim HJ (2014) Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors via pressure-induced nucleation. Sci Rep 4:6858
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ahluwalia J, Tinker A, Clapp LH, et al (2004) The large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is essential for innate immunity. Nature 427:853–858

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2014) MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Pehnt M (2006) Micro Cogeneration: Towards Decentralized Energy Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Haus N, Zimmermann S, Sures B (2010) Precious Metals in Urban Aquatic Systems: Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium: Sources, Occurrence, Bioavailability and Effects. In: Fatta-Kassinos D, Bester K, Kümmerer K (eds) Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle: Mass Flows, Environmental Processes, Mitigation and Treatment Strategies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Documenta Ophthalmologica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Cheap Smartphone Dongle Diagnoses HIV And Syphilis In 15 Minutes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Aviation Security: Progress Made to Set Up Program Using Private-Sector Airport Screeners, but More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard K (2017) College Programs in Women’s Prisons: Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Higher Education Behind Bars. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2007) Filipino Fast Food to Linger Over. New York Times NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDocumenta Ophthalmologica
AbbreviationDoc. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0012-4486
ISSN (online)1573-2622
Physiology (medical)
Sensory Systems

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