How to format your references using the Desalination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Desalination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N.S. Buckholtz, Perspective: in search of biomarkers, Nature. 475 (2011) S8.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.A. Pyc, K.A. Rawson, Why testing improves memory: mediator effectiveness hypothesis, Science. 330 (2010) 335.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.W. Vaupel, J.R. Carey, K. Christensen, Aging. It’s never too late, Science. 301 (2003) 1679–1681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Shalapour, X.-J. Lin, I.N. Bastian, J. Brain, A.D. Burt, A.A. Aksenov, A.F. Vrbanac, W. Li, A. Perkins, T. Matsutani, Z. Zhong, D. Dhar, J.A. Navas-Molina, J. Xu, R. Loomba, M. Downes, R.T. Yu, R.M. Evans, P.C. Dorrestein, R. Knight, C. Benner, Q.M. Anstee, M. Karin, Erratum: Inflammation-induced IgA+ cells dismantle anti-liver cancer immunity, Nature. 552 (2017) 430.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.A. Rosier, M.A. Martens, J.R. Thomas, Global New Drug Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
J.S. Gulliver, ed., Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Luquet, C. Rebolledo, L. Rouan, J.-C. Soulie, M. Dingkuhn, Heuristic Exploration of Theoretical Margins for Improving Adaptation of Rice through Crop-Model Assisted Phenotyping, in: X. Yin, P.C. Struik (Eds.), Crop Systems Biology: Narrowing the Gaps between Crop Modelling and Genetics, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 105–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Desalination.

Blog post
B. Taub, Magic Mushrooms Help Treat Existential Anxiety In Cancer Patients, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on Applicability of Grant-Back Provision of General Education Provisions Act to Library Services and Construction Act Programs], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.M. Thirumal, Production of Microbial Lipids from Lipomyces starkeyi, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, And the Emmy Goes to Politics, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesalination
ISSN (print)0011-9164
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
Water Science and Technology
General Materials Science

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