How to format your references using the Desalination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Desalination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.E. Schadt, Molecular networks as sensors and drivers of common human diseases, Nature. 461 (2009) 218–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.J. Shaw, L.C. Cantley, Ras, PI(3)K and mTOR signalling controls tumour cell growth, Nature. 441 (2006) 424–430.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.J. Mulligan, A. Kitchen, M.M. Miyamoto, Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals,” Science. 314 (2006) 1390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, D.Y. Kim, J. Park, Y.-T. Seo, H. Zeng, I.L. Moudrakovski, C.I. Ratcliffe, J.A. Ripmeester, Tuning clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage, Nature. 434 (2005) 743–746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-F. Daïan, Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 2, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
M. Schwartz, H. Winkel, eds., Eastern European Youth Cultures in a Global Context, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Trede, R. Flowers, Patient-Centred Context of Health Practice Relationships, in: J. Higgs, A. Croker, D. Tasker, J. Hummell, N. Patton (Eds.), Health Practice Relationships, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2014: pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Desalination.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Only 25 Hainan Gibbons Remain – What Next for the World’s Rarest Primate?, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Evaluation of Unit Cost Reports Submitted Under Public Law 97-86, Section 917, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.K. Shah, Data Transmission Using Image Steganography in Quick Response (QR) Code, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Alicia Keys Is the Talk Of Her Old Neighborhood, New York Times. (2002) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesalination
ISSN (print)0011-9164
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
Water Science and Technology
General Materials Science

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