How to format your references using the Desalination citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Desalination. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.J. Crowley, Paleoclimate. Cycles, cycles everywhere, Science. 295 (2002) 1473–1474.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Wickens, A. Goldstrohm, Molecular biology. A place to die, a place to sleep, Science. 300 (2003) 753–755.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.E. Jackson, M. Holcombe, F.L.W. Ratnieks, Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks, Nature. 432 (2004) 907–909.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zhong, W. Yan, J. Chen, Z. Shangguan, Net ammonium and nitrate fluxes in wheat roots under different environmental conditions as assessed by scanning ion-selective electrode technique, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Alexander, J. Walkenbach, Excel® Dashboards & Reports, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
N. Kanekawa, Dependability in Electronic Systems: Mitigation of Hardware Failures, Soft Errors, and Electro-Magnetic Disturbances, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Stemmer, N.A. Adams, Supersonic and Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Flows, in: M. Deville, T.-H. Lê, P. Sagaut (Eds.), Turbulence and Interactions: Keynote Lectures of the TI 2006 Conference, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 77–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Desalination.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Magic Mushrooms Do To Your Body And Brain, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Telephone Slamming and Its Harmful Effects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, Image analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography images of the urinary bladder for the recognition of bladder cancer, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Betting on Zero, New York Times. (2017) C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDesalination
ISSN (print)0011-9164
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Mechanical Engineering
Water Science and Technology
General Materials Science

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