How to format your references using the Current Pharmaceutical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Pharmaceutical Design (CPD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wright G. Antibiotics: An irresistible newcomer 2015; 517: 442–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan PA, Palmer RE. Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature 2005; 434: 367–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsui K, Yoshida H, Ikuhara Y. Nanocrystalline, ultra-degradation-resistant zirconia: its grain boundary nanostructure and nanochemistry 2014; 4: 4758.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bell T, Ager D, Song J-I, Newman JA, Thompson IP, Lilley AK, et al. Larger islands house more bacterial taxa 2005; 308: 1884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor R. Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2006.
An edited book
Wanninger A, editor. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 1: Introduction, Non-Bilateria, Acoelomorpha, Xenoturbellida, Chaetognatha. 1st ed. 2015. Vienna: Springer 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Caragea D, Zhang J, Bao J, Pathak J, Honavar V. Algorithms and Software for Collaborative Discovery from Autonomous, Semantically Heterogeneous, Distributed Information Sources. In: Jain S, Simon HU, Tomita E, Eds. Algorithmic Learning Theory: 16th International Conference, ALT 2005, Singapore, October 8-11, 2005. Proceedings.; Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2005; pp. 13–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Pharmaceutical Design.

Blog post
Davis J. Gene-Editing Technique CRISPR-Cas9 May Be Causing Hundreds Of Genetic Mutations [homepage on the Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2017. [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from: (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Broadcast Policies and Practices and the Board for International Broadcasting Oversight of Radio Programming. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gokhin DS. Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bailey B. Lost and Found 2017: BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Pharmaceutical Design
AbbreviationCurr. Pharm. Des.
ISSN (print)1381-6128
ISSN (online)1873-4286
ScopeDrug Discovery

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