How to format your references using the Culture and Brain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Brain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nutton, V. (2002). Portraits of science. Logic, learning, and experimental medicine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5556), 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymond, P. A., & Cole, J. J. (2003). Increase in the export of alkalinity from North America’s largest river. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 88–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaganovich, D., Kopito, R., & Frydman, J. (2008). Misfolded proteins partition between two distinct quality control compartments. Nature, 454(7208), 1088–1095.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chiorescu, I., Nakamura, Y., Harmans, C. J. P. M., & Mooij, J. E. (2003). Coherent quantum dynamics of a superconducting flux qubit. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5614), 1869–1871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S. (2005). Advanced Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Raoult, D., & Drancourt, M. (Eds.). (2008). Paleomicrobiology: Past Human Infections. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, L., & Zhang, B. (2007). Quotient Space Based Multi-granular Analysis. In Z. Zhang & J. Siekmann (Eds.), Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: Second International Conference, KSEM 2007, Melbourne, Australia, November 28-30, 2007. Proceedings (pp. 17–17). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Brain.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 20). Why Boston Schools Are Not Using This Map Anymore. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Bilingual Education: An Unmet Need (No. MWD-76-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, I. (2017). Strong-DISM: A First Attempt to a Dynamically Typed Assembly Language (D-TAL) (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2009, April 12). Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times, p. WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nutton 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Nutton 2002; Raymond and Cole 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymond and Cole 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiorescu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Brain
AbbreviationCult. Brain
ISSN (print)2193-8652
ISSN (online)2193-8660

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