How to format your references using the Culture and Brain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Brain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Bergh, S. (2007). Galaxy morphology: out of order. Nature, 445(7125), 265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boettiger, C., & Hastings, A. (2013). Tipping points: From patterns to predictions. Nature, 493(7431), 157–158.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghosh, D., Segal, A., & Voets, T. (2014). Distinct modes of perimembrane TRP channel turnover revealed by TIR-FRAP. Scientific reports, 4, 7111.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, H., Terazono, H., Takei, H., & Yasuda, K. (2014). Cup-shaped superparamagnetic hemispheres for size-selective cell filtration. Scientific reports, 4, 6362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W. (2009). Making RTI Work. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Onozuka, M., & Yen, C.-T. (Eds.). (2008). Novel Trends in Brain Science: Brain Imaging, Learning and Memory, Stress and Fear, and Pain. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Gander, H.-H. (2012). Sprache und Heimat Zu Arnold Stadlers Heidegger-Lektüre. In R. Breeur & U. Melle (Eds.), Life, Subjectivity & Art: Essays in Honor of Rudolf Bernet (pp. 101–122). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Brain.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 16). Astronomers Searched 100,000 Galaxies For Signs Of Advanced Alien Civilizations. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Fees Allowed Nonsponsored Not-for-Profit Organizations by Various Government Agencies (No. B-146810). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornejo, V. M. (2010). Teachers’ perceptions about promoting mental health in the classroom (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, January 1). Quick Bite/Millburn; When in Essex, Shop as the Romans Do. New York Times, p. 14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van den Bergh 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Boettiger and Hastings 2013; van den Bergh 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boettiger and Hastings 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Brain
AbbreviationCult. Brain
ISSN (print)2193-8652
ISSN (online)2193-8660

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