How to format your references using the Culture and Brain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Brain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telford, M. J. (2013). Evolution. The animal tree of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6121), 764–766.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kwon, O.-H., & Zewail, A. H. (2010). 4D electron tomography. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5986), 1668–1673.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ammerman, A. J., Pinhasi, R., & Bánffy, E. (2006). Comment on “Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5782), 1875; author reply 1875.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Holler, M., Diaz, A., Guizar-Sicairos, M., Karvinen, P., Färm, E., Härkönen, E., et al. (2014). X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution. Scientific reports, 4, 3857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, K. (2017). Sustainable and Green Electrochemical Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tymieniecka, A.-T. (Ed.). (2006). Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Koller, B., Struckmann, N., Buchholz, J., & Gienger, M. (2015). Towards an Environment to Deliver High Performance Computing to Small and Medium Enterprises. In M. M. Resch, W. Bez, E. Focht, H. Kobayashi, J. Qi, & S. Roller (Eds.), Sustained Simulation Performance 2015: Proceedings of the joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, University of Stuttgart (HLRS) and Tohoku University, 2015 (pp. 41–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Brain.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, July 13). Juno Returns Amazing First Image Of Jupiter And Its Moons From Orbit. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges (No. GAO-03-952). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coffman, M. W. (2015). A National Study of the Relationship between Home Access to a Computer and Academic Performance Scores of Grade 12 U.S. Science Students: An Analysis of the 2009 NAEP Data (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, January 26). Musk Has Trump’s Ear, and Market Takes Note. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Telford 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kwon and Zewail 2010; Telford 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kwon and Zewail 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Holler et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Brain
AbbreviationCult. Brain
ISSN (print)2193-8652
ISSN (online)2193-8660

Other styles