How to format your references using the Culture and Brain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Brain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, B. B. (2013). Oceans. How nitrogen is lost. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6144), 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
List, B., & Yang, J. W. (2006). Chemistry. The organic approach to asymmetric catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5793), 1584–1586.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kang, H., Koh, D.-Y., & Lee, H. (2014). Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide. Scientific reports, 4, 6616.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mehonic, A., Vrajitoarea, A., Cueff, S., Hudziak, S., Howe, H., Labbé, C., et al. (2013). Quantum conductance in silicon oxide resistive memory devices. Scientific reports, 3, 2708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulaev, I. S., Vagabov, V. M., & Kulakovskaya, T. V. (2005). The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wickramasinghe, N., Bali, R., Suomi, R., & Kirn, S. (Eds.). (2012). Critical Issues for the Development of Sustainable E-health Solutions (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito, K. (2007). Water Problem in PEMFC. In S. Basu (Ed.), Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology (pp. 129–136). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Brain.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 8). We Have Already Used Up This Year’s Supply Of Natural Resources. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Technology Transfer: Number and Characteristics of Inventions Licensed by Six Federal Agencies (No. RCED-99-173). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, H. M. (2017). DiaBeaThis Healthcare Clinic Business Plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik, D. E. (2017, April 25). Greg Marius, 59, Impresario of Harlem Street Ball. New York Times, p. B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward 2013).
This sentence cites two references (List and Yang 2006; Ward 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (List and Yang 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mehonic et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Brain
AbbreviationCult. Brain
ISSN (print)2193-8652
ISSN (online)2193-8660

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