How to format your references using the Contemporary Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manuelidis, L. 2000. “Penny Wise, Pound Foolish-a Retrospective.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290(5500):2257b.
A journal article with 2 authors
King, Chih-Yen, and Ruben Diaz-Avalos. 2004. “Protein-Only Transmission of Three Yeast Prion Strains.” Nature 428(6980):319–23.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piana, Stefano, Manijeh Reyhani, and Julian D. Gale. 2005. “Simulating Micrometre-Scale Crystal Growth from Solution.” Nature 438(7064):70–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kyutoku, Mariko, Hironori Nakagami, Hiroshi Koriyama, Futoshi Nakagami, Munehisa Shimamura, Hitomi Kurinami, Hideki Tomioka, Takashi Miyake, Tomohiro Katsuya, and Ryuichi Morishita. 2013. “Inhibition of Neointima Formation through DNA Vaccination for Apolipoprotein(a): A New Therapeutic Strategy for Lipoprotein(a).” Scientific Reports 3:1600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attoh-Okine, Nii O. 2017. Big Data and Differential Privacy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hagener, Malte, Vinzenz Hediger, and Alena Strohmaier, eds. 2016. The State of Post-Cinema: Tracing the Moving Image in the Age of Digital Dissemination. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Gheriani, Rachid, and Raouf Mechiakh. 2014. “Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Titanium Coatings on Steel Substrates.” Pp. 33–36 in International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress: Proceedings of InterM, Antalya, Turkey, October 10–13, 2013, Springer Proceedings in Physics, edited by E. K. Polychroniadis, A. Y. Oral, and M. Ozer. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Mums And Dads Of Very Preterm Babies More Likely To Be Depressed.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Information Technology: Implementation of IT Reform Law and Related Initiatives Can Help Improve Acquisitions. GAO-17-494T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, Angela. 2017. “Group Mentoring Program to Empower Transitional-Aged Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2006. “An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move.” New York Times, August 20, 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manuelidis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (King and Diaz-Avalos 2004; Manuelidis 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (King and Diaz-Avalos 2004)
  • Three authors: (Piana, Reyhani, and Gale 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kyutoku et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Sociology
AbbreviationContemp. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0094-3061
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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