How to format your references using the Contemporary Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Contemporary Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rochmyaningsih, Dyna. 2015. “Focus on Political Islamic Groups to Boost Science.” Nature 518(7540):457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Platt, Michael L. and Geoffrey K. Adams. 2012. “Psychology. Monkey See, Monkey Read.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336(6078):168–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bosch, Roeland, Mattheüs van de Pol, and Jim Philp. 2015. “Policy: Define Biomass Sustainability.” Nature 523(7562):526–27.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Arculus, Richard, Ian H. Campbell, Scott M. McLennan, and Stuart Ross Taylor. 2009. “Asteroids and Andesites.” Nature 459(7246):E1; discussion E2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelton, Ted. 2013. Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Preedy, Victor R. and Vinood B. Patel, eds. 2015. General Methods in Biomarker Research and Their Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hryniewicz, Olgierd, Zbigniew Nahorski, Jörg Verstraete, Joanna Horabik, and Matthias Jonas. 2015. “Compliance for Uncertain Inventories via Probabilistic/Fuzzy Comparison of Alternatives.” Pp. 69–84 in Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Expanding Our Perspective, edited by J. P. Ometto, R. Bun, M. Jonas, and Z. Nahorski. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Contemporary Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Canary In The Gold King Mine: Legacy Of Abandoned Mines Means More Spills.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Training and Education Programs for Civilian Employees in the Federal Government. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boothe, Chase Shelton. 2012. “The Effects of Prototype Medium on the User’s Overall Perception of Usability and Ability to Detect Usability Flaws.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, Benjamin and Nate Schweber. 2015. “Driver Arrested After Bus Fatally Strikes Pedestrian.” New York Times, November 4, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rochmyaningsih 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Platt and Adams 2012; Rochmyaningsih 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Platt and Adams 2012)
  • Three authors: (Bosch, van de Pol, and Philp 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Arculus et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleContemporary Sociology
AbbreviationContemp. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0094-3061
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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