How to format your references using the Constructive Approximation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Constructive Approximation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, R.L.: Retrospective. Lewis R. Binford (1931-2011). Science. 332, 928 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Heo, J.B., Sung, S.: Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science. 331, 76–79 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin, Y., Manoury, B., Fåhraeus, R.: Self-inhibition of synthesis and antigen presentation by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1. Science. 301, 1371–1374 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, X., Norell, M.A., Wang, X.-L., Makovicky, P.J., Wu, X.-C.: A basal troodontid from the Early Cretaceous of China. Nature. 415, 780–784 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, L.: Control of Biological and Drug-Delivery Systems for Chemical, Biomedical, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Kanzaki, H. ed: Uterine Endometrial Function. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Slaghuis, J., Joseph, B., Goebel, W.: Metabolism and Physiology of Listeria monocytogenes. In: Goldfine, H. and Shen, H. (eds.) Listeria monocytogenes: Pathogenesis and Host Response. pp. 63–80. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Constructive Approximation.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Your Brain Is “Hard-Wired” To React Without Thinking,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Railroad Safety: Continued Emphasis Needed for an Effective Track Safety Inspection Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvarin, M.: Special education paraeducators as instructional support, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S.: Fake Accounts at Wells Fargo Raised Alarms Starting in 2005, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleConstructive Approximation
AbbreviationConstr. Approx.
ISSN (print)0176-4276
ISSN (online)1432-0940
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

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