How to format your references using the Constructive Approximation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Constructive Approximation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheps, J.A.: Biochemistry. Through a mirror, differently. Science. 323, 1679–1680 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenfeld, D., Woodley, W.L.: Deep convective clouds with sustained supercooled liquid water down to -37.5 degrees C. Nature. 405, 440–442 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mookherjee, M., Stixrude, L., Karki, B.: Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure. Nature. 452, 983–986 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tobalske, B.W., Hedrick, T.L., Dial, K.P., Biewener, A.A.: Comparative power curves in bird flight. Nature. 421, 363–366 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chinesta, F., Cescotto, S., Cueto, E., Lorong, P.: Natural Element Method for the Simulation of Structures and Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Chatani, N. ed: Directed Metallation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Garavaglia, C., Breschi, S.: The Co-Evolution of Entrepreneurship and Clusters. In: Fratesi, U. and Senn, L. (eds.) Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions: The Role of Internal and External Connections. pp. 95–116. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Constructive Approximation.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Citizenship and Residency Requirements for Government Student Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1979)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp, L.M.: Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., Rashbaum, W.K.: Before Times Sq. Crash, A String of Legal Issues And a Fall Into Paranoia, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleConstructive Approximation
AbbreviationConstr. Approx.
ISSN (print)0176-4276
ISSN (online)1432-0940
ScopeGeneral Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

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