How to format your references using the Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans, R. Wylie Walker Vale Jr (1941-2012). Nature 2012, 483, 542.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, R.J.; Cantley, L.C. Cell biology. Ancient sensor for ancient drug. Science 2012, 336, 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia, Y.; Sanchez, J.A.; Wangh, L.J. Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ponti, A.; Machacek, M.; Gupton, S.L.; Waterman-Storer, C.M.; Danuser, G. Two distinct actin networks drive the protrusion of migrating cells. Science 2004, 305, 1782–1786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, M. Mind Games; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444327960.
An edited book
Encounters with Popular Pasts: Cultural Heritage and Popular Culture; Robinson, M., Silverman, H., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319131825.
A chapter in an edited book
MacCallum, D. Candida Albicans: New Insights in Infection, Disease, and Treatment. In New Insights in Medical Mycology; Kavanagh, K., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; pp. 99–129 ISBN 9781402063961.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers.

Blog post
Taub, B. Astronauts Get Taller In Space, But Also Suffer Spinal Damage Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intercity Passenger Rail: Outlook for Improving Amtrak’s Financial Health; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sparks, G.A. Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Haunting Lamentation for an Evanescent Now. New York Times 2016, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers
ISSN (online)2073-431X

Other styles