How to format your references using the Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rona, P.A. Geology. Resources of the sea floor. Science 2003, 299, 673–674.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wentz, F.J.; Ricciardulli, L. Comment on “Global trends in wind speed and wave height.” Science 2011, 334, 905; author reply 905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery, C.S.; Tout, C.A.; Lattanzio, J.C. Astronomy. Nucleosynthesis in binary stars. Science 2006, 311, 345–346.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bokoch, M.P.; Zou, Y.; Rasmussen, S.G.F.; Liu, C.W.; Nygaard, R.; Rosenbaum, D.M.; Fung, J.J.; Choi, H.-J.; Thian, F.S.; Kobilka, T.S.; et al. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature 2010, 463, 108–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El Hami, A.; Radi, B. Uncertainty and Optimization in Structural Mechanics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118711903.
An edited book
Advances in Dynamic Games: Theory, Applications, and Numerical Methods; Křivan, V., Zaccour, G., Eds.; Annals of the International Society of Dynamic Games; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2013; Vol. 13; ISBN 9783319026893.
A chapter in an edited book
Nieves, L. Esophageal Cancer: Gastrointestinal Features. In Atlas of Dermatological Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease; Wu, G.Y., Selsky, N., Grant-Kels, J.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 11–12 ISBN 9781461461906.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers.

Blog post
Fang, J. Fish-Eating Spiders Found on Six Continents Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office School Facilities: Reported Condition and Costs to Repair Schools Funded by Bureau of Indian Affairs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satterlee, R.T. A case study of undergraduate student employment at a private university: Exploring the effects of social class and institutional context. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. Space Invader. New York Times 2009, M234.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers
ISSN (online)2073-431X

Other styles