How to format your references using the Computers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. Enter the Dragon. Nature 2007, 449, 502–504.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gal-Yam, A.; Leonard, D.C. A Massive Hypergiant Star as the Progenitor of the Supernova SN 2005gl. Nature 2009, 458, 865–867.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pendry, J.B.; Schurig, D.; Smith, D.R. Controlling Electromagnetic Fields. Science 2006, 312, 1780–1782.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peiter, E.; Maathuis, F.J.M.; Mills, L.N.; Knight, H.; Pelloux, J.; Hetherington, A.M.; Sanders, D. The Vacuolar Ca2+-Activated Channel TPC1 Regulates Germination and Stomatal Movement. Nature 2005, 434, 404–408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher, V.M. Seismic Loads; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118946282.
An edited book
Advanced Computer Simulation Approaches for Soft Matter Sciences III; Holm, C., Kremer, K., Eds.; Advances in Polymer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 221; ISBN 9783540877059.
A chapter in an edited book
Portela, A.E.; Folgueras, J.; Milanes, A.; Forneiro, Y. Architecture Proposal for an Automated Biphasic External Defibrillator. In World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/11 Biomedical Engineering for Audiology, Ophthalmology, Emergency & Dental Medicine; Dössel, O., Schlegel, W.C., Eds.; IFMBE Proceedings; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 13–16 ISBN 9783642038907.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Apple Car Will Be Really Different … If It Exists Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Acquisitions: DOD Is Making Progress to Rapidly Deliver Low Cost Space Capabilities, but Challenges Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, C. Perceived Efficacy of the O*NET Skills Search Tool among Individuals with High Functioning Autism. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. The Incredible Shrinking White House Briefing. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers
ISSN (online)2073-431X

Other styles