How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson, A., 2014. Epidemiology. Mathematical models for emerging disease. Science 346, 1294–1295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Amamoto, R., Arlotta, P., 2014. Development-inspired reprogramming of the mammalian central nervous system. Science 343, 1239882.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, C.Y., Ayliffe, M.A., Timmis, J.N., 2003. Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus. Nature 422, 72–76.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Salahudeen, A.A., Thompson, J.W., Ruiz, J.C., Ma, H.-W., Kinch, L.N., Li, Q., Grishin, N.V., Bruick, R.K., 2009. An E3 ligase possessing an iron-responsive hemerythrin domain is a regulator of iron homeostasis. Science 326, 722–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Means, R.S., 2010. Green Building: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nickerson, A.B., 2009. Identifying, Assessing, and Treating PTSD at School, Developmental Psychopathology at School. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Monaghan, K.G., Van Dyke, D.L., 2006. Laboratory Testing for Prader-Willi Syndrome, in: Butler, M.G., Lee, P.D.K., Whitman, B.Y. (Eds.), Management of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 74–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Common Painkiller, Ibuprofen, Extends Lifespan Of Several Organisms [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. General Aviation: Status of the Industry, Related Infrastructure, and Safety Issues (No. GAO-01-916). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Soheili, A., 2008. A transannular Cope approach toward the core structure of isocyclocitrinol (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J., 2017. In Brooklyn, a Hunt For the Perfect Fit. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dobson, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Amamoto and Arlotta, 2014; Dobson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Amamoto and Arlotta, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Salahudeen et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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