How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Porto, J.V., 2013. Physics. Cold-atom magnetism. Science 340, 1297–1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seeley, R.J., Sandoval, D.A., 2011. Neuroscience: weight loss through smoking. Nature 475, 176–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender, P.A., Kee, J.-M., Warrington, J.M., 2008. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science 320, 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, X., Ge, X., Yu, Y., Zhang, Y., Wu, Y., Luan, Y., Sun, J., Qu, J., Jin, Z.-B., Gu, F., 2014. Identification of three novel mutations in the FRMD7 gene for X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus. Sci. Rep. 4, 3745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neward, T., Erickson, A.C., Crowell, T., Minerich, R., 2010. Professional F# 2.0. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Berkman, P.A., Vylegzhanin, A.N. (Eds.), 2013. Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh Saharan, G., Mehta, N., Meena, P.D., 2016. Infection Process, Pathogenesis and Disease Cycle, in: Mehta, N., Meena, P.D. (Eds.), Alternaria Diseases of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management. Springer, Singapore, pp. 87–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Magnetar Storm Reveals Evidence of Starquakes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards/NASA (No. FPCD-80-85). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, M.M., 2010. Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. JOHN KELLY, E., 1998. Navy Yard, Recommissioned. New York Times 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Porto, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Porto, 2013; Seeley and Sandoval, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seeley and Sandoval, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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