How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Northern England: rising star. Nature 425, 430–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen, M.R., Frame, D.J., 2007. Atmosphere. Call off the quest. Science 318, 582–583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, R., Mason, A., members of the NTA Network, 2014. Is low fertility really a problem? Population aging, dependency, and consumption. Science 346, 229–234.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Z., Tao, P., Liu, Y., Xu, H., Ye, Q., Hu, H., Song, C., Chen, Z., Shang, W., Deng, T., 2014. Rapid charging of thermal energy storage materials through plasmonic heating. Sci. Rep. 4, 6246.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Talbot, D.B., 2012. Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jackson, T.L. (Ed.), 2012. Modeling Tumor Vasculature: Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Level Aspects and Implications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Topaloff, L.K., 2013. Bulgaria, in: Biehl, H., Giegerich, B., Jonas, A. (Eds.), Strategic Cultures in Europe: Security and Defence Policies Across the Continent. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Solve Decades-Old Lunar Mystery [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. Issues Concerning the National Materials Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, Public Law 96-479 (No. 121374). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva, I.G., 2009. Environments of strong gravitational lenses (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., Steel, E., 2017. Fox News, Pledging New Culture, Ousts Another Symbol of Old One. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Allen and Frame, 2007; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allen and Frame, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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