How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Südhof, T.C., 2015. Reproducibility: Experimental mismatch in neural circuits. Nature 528, 338–339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, F., He, S., 2014. Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium. Sci. Rep. 4, 6832.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finnegan, N.J., Schumer, R., Finnegan, S., 2014. A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years. Nature 505, 391–394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ricci, A., Poccia, N., Campi, G., Coneri, F., Caporale, A.S., Innocenti, D., Burghammer, M., Zimmermann, M.V., Bianconi, A., 2013. Multiscale distribution of oxygen puddles in 1/8 doped YBa2Cu3O6.67. Sci. Rep. 3, 2383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler, D.B., 2013. James Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Avison, D., Kasper, G.M., Pernici, B., Ramos, I., Roode, D. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in Information Systems Research, Education and Practice: IFIP 20th World Computer Congress, TC 8, Information Systems, September 7-10, 2008, Milano, Italy, IFIP – The International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Carr, D., 2010. Personal and Professional Values in Teaching, in: Lovat, T., Toomey, R., Clement, N. (Eds.), International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 63–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. The Cityscapes Of Tomorrow Might Include Smog-Busting SkyScrapers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Commercial Trucking: Safety Concerns About Mexican Trucks Remain Even as Inspection Activity Increases (No. RCED-97-68). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abrahamian, A., 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Puerto Rico Senate Votes to Halt Payments on $72 Billion Debt. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Südhof, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Südhof, 2015; Sun and He, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun and He, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ricci et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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