How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Redfield, S., 2012. Astronomy. Gathering interstellar gas. Science 336, 1243–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, J.H., Handcock, M.S., 2003. Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds. Nature 423, 605–6; discussion 606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunn, E.W., Aknin, L.B., Norton, M.I., 2008. Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science 319, 1687–1688.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Coey, J.M.D., Venkatesan, M., Fitzgerald, C.B., Douvalis, A.P., Sanders, I.S., 2002. Ferromagnetism of a graphite nodule from the Canyon Diablo meteorite. Nature 420, 156–159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kossiakoff, A., Sweet, W.N., 2005. Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Decety, J., Christen, Y. (Eds.), 2014. New Frontiers in Social Neuroscience, Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Díaz-Fleischer, F., Piñero, J.C., Shelly, T.E., 2014. Interactions Between Tephritid Fruit Fly Physiological State and Stimuli from Baits and Traps: Looking for the Pied Piper of Hamelin to Lure Pestiferous Fruit Flies, in: Shelly, T., Epsky, N., Jang, E.B., Reyes-Flores, J., Vargas, R. (Eds.), Trapping and the Detection, Control, and Regulation of Tephritid Fruit Flies: Lures, Area-Wide Programs, and Trade Implications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 145–172.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Meat Is Important In The Global Battle Against Food Insecurity [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Federal Research: DOE Is Providing Independent Review of the Scientific Merit of Its Research (No. RCED-00-109). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fernandes, J.M., 2017. Physical and chemical properties of Jupiter’s north and south polar vortex revealed through mid-infrared imaging (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Macfarlane, I., 1906. Wordsworth. New York Times RECIEW OF BOOKSBR166.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Redfield, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Jones and Handcock, 2003; Redfield, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Handcock, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Coey et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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