How to format your references using the Cold Regions Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cold Regions Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stearns, T., 2015. Cell biology. Centrioles, in absentia. Science 348, 1091–1092.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H., Tromp, J., 2013. Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean. Science 341, 871–875.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilmann, F., Ni, J., INDEPTH III Seismic Team, 2003. Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet. Science 300, 1424–1427.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prabhakar, S., Noonan, J.P., Pääbo, S., Rubin, E.M., 2006. Accelerated evolution of conserved noncoding sequences in humans. Science 314, 786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulkarni, S., Harman, G., 2011. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory: Kulkarni/Statistical Learning Theory, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cebeci, T., 2005. Modeling and Computation of Boundary-Layer Flows: Laminar, Turbulent and Transitional Boundary Layers in Incompressible and Compressible Flows, Second Revised and Extended Edition. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Peterson, C.J., Cannon, J.B., Godfrey, C.M., 2016. First Steps Toward Defining the Wind Disturbance Regime in Central Hardwoods Forests, in: Greenberg, C.H., Collins, B.S. (Eds.), Natural Disturbances and Historic Range of Variation: Type, Frequency, Severity, and Post-Disturbance Structure in Central Hardwood Forests USA, Managing Forest Ecosystems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 89–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cold Regions Science and Technology.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, H., 2017. Company Wants To Tow Icebergs, And Seemingly Penguins And Polar Bears Along With Them [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1969. Enrollment and Attendance Aspects of Federal Student Financial Aid Programs (No. 092719). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer, C.D., 2013. School Referenda and Ohio Department of Education Typologies: An Investigation of the Outcomes of First Attempt School Operating Levies from 2002–2010 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nagourney, A., Berger, J., 2010. Horror at Desert Ritual as Racer Flips Into Crowd. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stearns, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Stearns, 2015; Zhu and Tromp, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Tromp, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Prabhakar et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCold Regions Science and Technology
AbbreviationCold Reg. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0165-232X
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles