How to format your references using the CNS Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CNS Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barrangou R. RNA events. Cas9 targeting and the CRISPR revolution. Science. 344(6185), 707–708 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruprecht P, Plank T. Feeding andesitic eruptions with a high-speed connection from the mantle. Nature. 500(7460), 68–72 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason AC, Oshinsky ML, Hoy RR. Hyperacute directional hearing in a microscale auditory system. Nature. 410(6829), 686–690 (2001).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Skotheim JM, Di Talia S, Siggia ED, Cross FR. Positive feedback of G1 cyclins ensures coherent cell cycle entry. Nature. 454(7202), 291–296 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Chouikha M. Organizational Design for Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Demuth M. Determining Spectra in Quantum Theory. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chryssolouris G, Mavrikios D, Pappas M. A Web and Virtual Reality Based Paradigm for Collaborative Management and Verification of Design Knowledge. In: Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management. Bernard A, Tichkiewitch S (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 91–105 (2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CNS Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Seismologists Deploy After A Quake To Learn More, So We Can Prepare For The Next One [Internet]. IFLScience (2015). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Allocation of Funds From 1982 to 1992. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Necaise KW. Effects of soybean-derived phytoestrogens on reproductive tract development in neonatal male and female pigs: Animal model for the human infant. (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Words And Deeds; The Guinier Affair Aggravates Clinton’s Credibility Problem. New York Times, 41 (1993).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCNS Oncology
AbbreviationCNS Oncol.
ISSN (print)2045-0907
ISSN (online)2045-0915
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles