How to format your references using the CNS Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CNS Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Granting longevity. Nature. 430(7002), 947 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen J, Hagan IM. Polo kinase links the stress pathway to cell cycle control and tip growth in fission yeast. Nature. 435(7041), 507–512 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Bryden HL, Longworth HR, Cunningham SA. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees N. Nature. 438(7068), 655–657 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Takeuchi K, Tokunaga Y, Imai M, Takahashi H, Shimada I. Dynamic multidrug recognition by multidrug transcriptional repressor LmrR. Sci. Rep. 4, 6922 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Makower T. Touching the City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Visioli A. Control of Integral Processes with Dead Time. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Kerr KM. The Classification of Pre-invasive Lesions. In: Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer. Cagle PT, Allen TC, Beasley MB, et al. (Eds.), Springer, New York, NY, 35–52 (2012).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CNS Oncology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Boron Discovered On Mars For The First Time [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Production and Quality of Education Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LaVertu DJ. An Exploratory Approach to In-Trinity® for Fall Prevention. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herszenhorn DM. A Year After Seizing Crimea, Putin Celebrates as Ukraine Seethes. New York Times, A9 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCNS Oncology
AbbreviationCNS Oncol.
ISSN (print)2045-0907
ISSN (online)2045-0915
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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