How to format your references using the CNS Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CNS Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pimentel D. Biological control of invading species. Science. 289(5481), 869c (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoon S-J, Lee Y-W. An aligned stream of low-metallicity clusters in the halo of the Milky Way. Science. 297(5581), 578–581 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Sazonov SY, Lutovinov AA, Sunyaev RA. An apparently normal gamma-ray burst with an unusually low luminosity. Nature. 430(7000), 646–648 (2004).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yin Y, He X, Szewczyk P, Nguyen T, Chang G. Structure of the multidrug transporter EmrD from Escherichia coli. Science. 312(5774), 741–744 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsson A. Understanding Changing Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Schmidt B. Ion Beams in Materials Processing and Analysis. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Purwaningrum F. Shifting Practices of Academia as an Entrepreneurial OrganizationEntrepreneurial Organization in Indonesia. In: Scientific Knowledge and the Transgression of Boundaries. Krings B-J, Rodríguez H, Schleisiek A (Eds.), Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, 103–132 (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CNS Oncology.

Blog post
Taub B. Fish Can Tell People Apart By Their Faces [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parhad A. Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems. (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Cancer’s Secrets Come Into Sharper Focus. New York Times, D1 (2011).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCNS Oncology
AbbreviationCNS Oncol.
ISSN (print)2045-0907
ISSN (online)2045-0915
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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