How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson, Katharine. 2011. “Lignocellulose: A Chewy Problem.” Nature 474 (7352): S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Budd, Ann F., and John M. Pandolfi. 2010. “Evolutionary Novelty Is Concentrated at the Edge of Coral Species Distributions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5985): 1558–1561.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morais-Cabral, J. H., Y. Zhou, and R. MacKinnon. 2001. “Energetic Optimization of Ion Conduction Rate by the K+ Selectivity Filter.” Nature 414 (6859): 37–42.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Chin-Man, Su-Wei Chang, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Jing-Chi Lin, Huei-Huang Ho, Tse-Chih Chou, Bing Yang, Jianming Wu, and Ji-Yih Chen. 2014. “Genetic Variations in Toll-like Receptors (TLRs 3/7/8) Are Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Taiwanese Population.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bielecki, Tomasz R., Damiano Brigo, and Fédéric Patras. 2011. Credit Risk Frontiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel. 2015. Impact Craters in South America. Edited by Maximiliano C. L. Rocca, Juan Federico Ponce, and Sergio G. Stinco. SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Langbein, Julia. 2009. “The Transnationalization of Change in Economic Institutions: The Case of Industrial Standards Regulations in Ukraine.” In The Transnationalization of Economies, States, and Civil Societies: New Challenges for Governance in Europe, edited by Laszlo Bruszt and Ronald Holzhacker, 107–133. New York, NY: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Alien-Looking Catfish Stumps Taxonomists.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. The Federal Weather Program Must Have Stronger Central Direction. LCD-80-10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neil, Deven M. 2013. “Climate Frequencies of the Early Holocene from Foy Lake, Montana.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. “The Storming of Mount Salzburg.” New York Times, August 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sanderson 2011; Budd and Pandolfi 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Budd and Pandolfi 2010)
  • Three authors: (Morais-Cabral, Zhou, and MacKinnon 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles