How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bhatia, Mickie. 2010. “Developmental Biology. Microenvironment Mimicry.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5995): 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moser, Auna L., and Paul M. Bellan. 2012. “Magnetic Reconnection from a Multiscale Instability Cascade.” Nature 482 (7385): 379–381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio, Gregorio Alanis-Lobato, and Timothy Ravasi. 2013. “From Link-Prediction in Brain Connectomes and Protein Interactomes to the Local-Community-Paradigm in Complex Networks.” Scientific Reports 3: 1613.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mukherjee, Arup, Tamal K. Sen, Pradip Kr Ghorai, and Swadhin K. Mandal. 2013. “The Non-Innocent Phenalenyl Unit: An Electronic Nest to Modulate the Catalytic Activity in Hydroamination Reaction.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abraham, Andrew. 2012. The Trend Following Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, Christian Kittl, Dimitris E. Simos, Edgar Weippl, and Lida Xu, eds. 2013. Security Engineering and Intelligence Informatics: CD-ARES 2013 Workshops: MoCrySEn and SeCIHD, Regensburg, Germany, September 2-6, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 8128. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pumijumnong, Nathsuda. 2014. “Mangrove Forests in Thailand.” In Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia: Status, Challenges and Management Strategies, edited by I. Faridah-Hanum, A. Latiff, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, and Munir Ozturk, 61–79. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Opportunity Of A Lifetime: NASA’s 4,000 Days Roving Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Department of Education: Management of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. HRD-90-21BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Datta, Aditi. 2017. “Speech Synthesis Using Unsupervised Learning.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Valerian, Susan. 2013. “The Long-Running Man.” New York Times, November 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bhatia 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bhatia 2010; Moser and Bellan 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moser and Bellan 2012)
  • Three authors: (Cannistraci, Alanis-Lobato, and Ravasi 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mukherjee et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles