How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baylis, Françoise. 2010. “Pregnant Women Deserve Better.” Nature 465 (7299): 689–690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milutinovich, Mark, and Douglas E. Koshland. 2003. “Molecular Biology. SMC Complexes--Wrapped up in Controversy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5622): 1101–1102.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhalla, Upinder S., Prahlad T. Ram, and Ravi Iyengar. 2002. “MAP Kinase Phosphatase as a Locus of Flexibility in a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Network.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5583): 1018–1023.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, D. S., J. S. Lee, S. H. Oh, S. K. Kim, J. W. Kim, J. K. Chung, M. C. Lee, and C. S. Kim. 2001. “Cross-Modal Plasticity and Cochlear Implants.” Nature 409 (6817): 149–150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan, Yi, Jianxin Wang, and Min Li. 2013. Algorithmic and Artificial Intelligence Methods for Protein Bioinformatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Messina, Arturo Roman, ed. 2009. Inter-Area Oscillations in Power Systems: A Nonlinear and Nonstationary Perspective. Power Electronics and Power Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Senior, Kim, and Julianne Moss. 2016. “The Use of the Visual to Interpret School Cultures: Producing Knowledge and Knowing When You Are Learning to Teach.” In Visual Research Methods in Educational Research, edited by Julianne Moss and Barbara Pini, 75–99. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Planetary And Human Health - One Coin, Two Sides.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Passengers with Disabilities: Air Carriers’ Disability-Training Programs and the Department of Transportation’s Oversight. GAO-17-541R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, Kristin M. 2015. “Parent Involvement in the Promotion of Healthy Outcomes for Young Girls: A Grant Writing Project.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2016. “At Storm King, Fields of Stars, Rulers and Pipes.” New York Times, June 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baylis 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baylis 2010; Milutinovich and Koshland 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milutinovich and Koshland 2003)
  • Three authors: (Bhalla, Ram, and Iyengar 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lee et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles