How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elgersma, Ype. 2015. “Neurodevelopmental Disease: A Molecular Tightrope.” Nature 526 (7571): 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, Johannes D., and Vivek Jayaraman. 2015. “Neural Dynamics for Landmark Orientation and Angular Path Integration.” Nature 521 (7551): 186–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons, Timothy W., Christopher T. Reinhard, and Noah J. Planavsky. 2014. “The Rise of Oxygen in Earth’s Early Ocean and Atmosphere.” Nature 506 (7488): 307–315.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sternberg, A., A. Gal-Yam, J. D. Simon, D. C. Leonard, R. M. Quimby, M. M. Phillips, N. Morrell, et al. 2011. “Circumstellar Material in Type Ia Supernovae via Sodium Absorption Features.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6044): 856–859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh, Suleiman M., Mohammad A. Abusara, Georgios I. Orfanoudakis, and Babar Hussain. 2014. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Camesano, Terri A., ed. 2015. Nanotechnology to Aid Chemical and Biological Defense. 1st ed. 2015. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Poirier, E. J., and D. R. Poirier. 2016. “Energy Balance Applications in Fluid Flow.” In Solutions Manual To Accompany Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing, edited by D. R. Poirier, 63–91. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Man-Made Climate Change Led To Hundreds Of Heatwave Deaths In Paris.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Mass Transit: Information on Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs. RCED-93-25. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eller, Linda S. 2012. “Social Media as Avenue for Personal Learning for Educators: Personal Learning Networks Encourage Application of Knowledge and Skills.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. “Where 146 Died in a Fire, And a Union Was Born.” New York Times, November 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elgersma 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Elgersma 2015; Seelig and Jayaraman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Jayaraman 2015)
  • Three authors: (Lyons, Reinhard, and Planavsky 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sternberg et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles