How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, Ulrike K. 2003. “Physiology. Fish ’n Flag.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5650): 1511–1512.
A journal article with 2 authors
White, R. J., and M. Averner. 2001. “Humans in Space.” Nature 409 (6823): 1115–1118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, P. C., A. M. Keleshian, and F. Sachs. 2001. “Voltage-Induced Membrane Movement.” Nature 413 (6854): 428–432.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Zhi, Yu-Ao Chen, An-Ning Zhang, Tao Yang, Hans J. Briegel, and Jian-Wei Pan. 2004. “Experimental Demonstration of Five-Photon Entanglement and Open-Destination Teleportation.” Nature 430 (6995): 54–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paterson, James C. 2015. Lean Auditing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bahadir, Ali Müfit, and Gheorghe Duca, eds. 2009. The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, Jong-Wook, Hyun-Kyu Shin, Jae-Seung Lee, and Yee-Jin Cheon. 2012. “Development of LEON3-FT Processor Emulator for Flight Software Development and Test.” In Advanced Information Technology in Education, edited by Khine Soe Thaung, 33–40. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Scientists Have Measured A Black Hole, And It Has A Mass Of 660 MILLION Suns.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. School Finance: State and Federal Efforts to Target Poor Students. HEHS-98-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardiman, Brady Stephen. 2012. “Resilience of Forest Carbon Storage through Disturbance and Succession.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “Amazon Executive Resigns After Harassment Claim.” New York Times, October 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Müller 2003; White and Averner 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (White and Averner 2001)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Keleshian, and Sachs 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles