How to format your references using the Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chang, Frederick R. 2009. “Computer Science. Is Your Computer Secure?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5940): 550–551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, Jeff, and Colin Norman. 2011. “2010 Visualization Challenge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6019): 847–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adams, Melissa D., Mitch McVey, and Jeff J. Sekelsky. 2003. “Drosophila BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair by Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5604): 265–267.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rossi, A., P. Kapahi, G. Natoli, T. Takahashi, Y. Chen, M. Karin, and M. G. Santoro. 2000. “Anti-Inflammatory Cyclopentenone Prostaglandins Are Direct Inhibitors of IkappaB Kinase.” Nature 403 (6765): 103–108.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciana, Paul. 2011. New Frontiers in Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pfeifer, Katrin, and Niki Pfeifer, eds. 2013. Forces of Nature and Cultural Responses. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bragança, M. F., Gabriel R. Ribeiro, Pedro A. R. Rosa, and Paulo A. F. Martins. 2013. “Prototype Machine for Micro-EDM.” In Nontraditional Machining Processes: Research Advances, edited by J. Paulo Davim, 153–176. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Quasar Sheds Light On A Twin Black Hole Secret.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Month In Review, April 1999: Reports, Testimony, Correspondence, and Other Publications. OPA-99-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amos, Anthea E. 2010. “Perceptions of the Persistent: Academic Experiences of First Generation Community College Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2017. “Dog Show? Whatever.” New York Times, February 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chang 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chang 2009; Nesbit and Norman 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit and Norman 2011)
  • Three authors: (Adams, McVey, and Sekelsky 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rossi et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCivil Engineering and Environmental Systems
AbbreviationCiv. Eng. Environ. Syst.
ISSN (print)1028-6608
ISSN (online)1029-0249
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles