How to format your references using the Canadian Pharmacists Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Pharmacists Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baird BN. Comment on “Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk.” Science. 2006 Aug 4;313(5787):615; author reply 615.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman A, Perrimon N. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling. Nature. 2006 Nov 9;444(7116):230–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howat IM, Joughin I, Scambos TA. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers. Science. 2007 Mar 16;315(5818):1559–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hjouj M, Lavee J, Last D, Guez D, Daniels D, Sharabi S, et al. The effect of blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging of non thermal irreversible electroporation. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 30;3:3088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barone S, Franco EL. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Cai Z, Liu S, editors. Applications of MALDI-TOF Spectroscopy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. VII, 215 p. 61 illus., 10 illus. in color. (Topics in Current Chemistry; vol. 331).
A chapter in an edited book
Mandalenakis H. Economic Recession and Labour Migration. In: Botsiou KE, Klapsis A, editors. The Konstantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2011: The Global Economic Crisis and the Case of Greece. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 45–56. (The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook Series).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Pharmacists Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cute, Colourful And Not That Tasty – But The Cleaner Fish Could Save Salmon Farmers Millions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Biotechnology: Agriculture’s Regulatory System Needs Clarification. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Mar. Report No.: RCED-86-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gajewski TJ. Exploring leadership styles from a mediator’s perspective: A phenomenological study examining four specific organizational leadership styles and their relationship to four mediation styles as summarized by Leonard L. Riskin [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets Turn Up a Lament to Sing Twice. New York Times. 2017 Jun 5;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Pharmacists Journal
AbbreviationCan. Pharm. J. (Ott.)
ISSN (print)1715-1635
ISSN (online)1913-701X
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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