How to format your references using the Canadian Pharmacists Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Pharmacists Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark JM. Paleontology. A different kind of croc. Science. 2006 Jan 6;311(5757):43–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiberstis P, Roberts L. Breast cancer. A race still unfinished. Introduction. Science. 2014 Mar 28;343(6178):1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donlea JM, Ramanan N, Shaw PJ. Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila. Science. 2009 Apr 3;324(5923):105–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rink JC, Gurley KA, Elliott SA, Sánchez Alvarado A. Planarian Hh signaling regulates regeneration polarity and links Hh pathway evolution to cilia. Science. 2009 Dec 4;326(5958):1406–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marks KH, Robbins LE, Fernández G, Funkhouser JP, Williams DL. The Handbook of Financing Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Tsihrintzis GA, Damiani E, Virvou M, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, editors. Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XII, 251 p. (Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies; vol. 6).
A chapter in an edited book
Mishkin D, Matas J. Matching of Images of Non-planar Objects with View Synthesis. In: Geffert V, Preneel B, Rovan B, Štuller J, Tjoa AM, editors. SOFSEM 2014: Theory and Practice of Computer Science: 40th International Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Nový Smokovec, Slovakia, January 26-29, 2014, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 30–9. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Pharmacists Journal.

Blog post
Taub B. Light Pollution Leads Baby Sea Turtles Astray, Study Shows [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Accounting Adjustments--Tank-Automotive Command. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Aug. Report No.: AFMD-92-102ML.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gardina VJ. Analysis of LiDAR data for fluvial geomorphic change detection at a small Maryland stream [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russian Orthodox Church Adds Influential Voice to Calls for Election Reform. New York Times. 2011 Dec 12;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Pharmacists Journal
AbbreviationCan. Pharm. J. (Ott.)
ISSN (print)1715-1635
ISSN (online)1913-701X
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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