How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Physiology: Beating stroke. Nature. 2013 Jan 31;493(7434):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott A, Schiermeier Q. Deep roots of Nazi science revealed. Nature. 2000 Oct 19;407(6806):823–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshino T, Walter MJ, Katsura T. Core formation in planetesimals triggered by permeable flow. Nature. 2003 Mar 13;422(6928):154–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smart N, Risebro CA, Melville AAD, Moses K, Schwartz RJ, Chien KR, et al. Thymosin beta4 induces adult epicardial progenitor mobilization and neovascularization. Nature. 2007 Jan 11;445(7124):177–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Budisa N. Engineering the Genetic Code. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Matranga V, editor. Echinodermata. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XXIII, 275 p. (Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology, Marine Molecular Biotechnology; vol. 39).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu R, Janczewski L. A Proposed Framework for Examining Information Systems Security Research: A Multilevel Perspective. In: Vogel D, Guo X, Linger H, Barry C, Lang M, Schneider C, editors. Transforming Healthcare Through Information Systems: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Information Systems Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 49–61. (Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Depression Associated With Higher Risk Of Developing Parkinson’s [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Actions Underway But Management and Technical Weaknesses Not Yet Corrected. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: T-AIMD-96-165.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zivkovic O. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Yuri Drozdov, 91, Top Spy For K.G.B. Who Planted Agents Around the Globe. New York Times. 2017 Jul 11;B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationCan. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0008-428X
ISSN (online)1488-2310

Other styles