How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raymond JC. Astronomy. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants. Science. 2009 Aug 7;325(5941):683–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Izawa D, Pines J. The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C. Nature. 2015 Jan 29;517(7536):631–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z. A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):84–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rast JP, Smith LC, Loza-Coll M, Hibino T, Litman GW. Genomic insights into the immune system of the sea urchin. Science. 2006 Nov 10;314(5801):952–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woods DR. Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Polpo A, Louzada F, Rifo LLR, Stern JM, Lauretto M, editors. Interdisciplinary Bayesian Statistics: EBEB 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVIII, 366 p. 67 illus., 45 illus. in color. (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics; vol. 118).
A chapter in an edited book
Bernstein A, Kuleshov A. Low-Dimensional Data Representation in Data Analysis. In: Gayar NE, Schwenker F, Suen C, editors. Artificial Neural Networks in Pattern Recognition: 6th IAPR TC 3 International Workshop, ANNPR 2014, Montreal, QC, Canada, October 6-8, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 47–58. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. How To Create Your Own Ecosystem In A Bottle [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Close Air Support: Status of the Air Force’s Efforts to Replace the A-10 Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-88-211.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson AM. A novel role for MUC7 mucin glycoprotein in the innate immunity and genetic propensity of asthma [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Pardon My Dust? Neighbors of a College Project Say No. New York Times. 2001 Jul 15;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationCan. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0008-428X
ISSN (online)1488-2310

Other styles