How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nee S. More than meets the eye. Nature. 2004 Jun 24;429(6994):804–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brazeau MD, Ahlberg PE. Tetrapod-like middle ear architecture in a Devonian fish. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):318–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hovenden MJ, Newton PCD, Wills KE. Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):583–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moser M, Legate KR, Zent R, Fässler R. The tail of integrins, talin, and kindlins. Science. 2009 May 15;324(5929):895–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees PA. An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Duncan ID, Franklin RJM, editors. Myelin Repair and Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013. XIV, 290 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chubarikov VN. On the Hilbert-Kamke and the Vinogradov Problems in Additive Number Theory. In: Zhang W, Tanigawa Y, editors. Number Theory: Tradition and Modernization. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 27–37. (Developments in Mathematics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. How Accurately Do Movies Depict Quicksand? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commuter Rail: Commuter Rail Issues Should Be Considered in Debate over Amtrak. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-470.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglen Bertrando SL. Rethinking Workplace Learning in the Digital World: A Case Study of Open Badges [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Once a Prodigy, Now Stronger for Her Struggles. New York Times. 2017 Jan 24;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationCan. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0008-428X
ISSN (online)1488-2310

Other styles