How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snieder R. The tube worm turns. Nature. 2000 Aug 31;406(6799):939.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yasunaga M, Matsumura Y. Role of SLC6A6 in promoting the survival and multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 30;4:4852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kutnjak Z, Petzelt J, Blinc R. The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors as a critical phenomenon. Nature. 2006 Jun 22;441(7096):956–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shandilya A, Chacko S, Jayaram B, Ghosh I. A plausible mechanism for the antimalarial activity of artemisinin: A computational approach. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li W. Risk Assessment of Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Ibarrola M de, Anderson LW, editors. The Nurturing of New Educational Researchers: Dialogues and Debates. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. XIV, 150 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Adkinson JM. Upper Extremity Compression Neuropathies in Rheumatoid Patients. In: Chung KC, editor. Clinical Management of the Rheumatoid Hand, Wrist, and Elbow. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Plan to build ‘CSI Elephant’ uses DNA forensics to track poachers. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Concerns Over Security and Privacy Elements of the Systems Architecture. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Sep. Report No.: IMTEC-92-63.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narita D. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation: An analysis of economic optimality and policy making [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. The Wasted Times. New York Times. 2016 Dec 15;C13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Surgery
AbbreviationCan. J. Surg.
ISSN (print)0008-428X
ISSN (online)1488-2310

Other styles