How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wells, T.N.C. 2010. Microbiology. Is the tide turning for new malaria medicines? Science 329: 1153–1154.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, P., and Grayson, M. 2014. Assessing science. Nature 511: S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santamaría, L., Diaz, M., and Valladares, F. 2013. Science in Europe. Dark clouds over Spanish science. Science 340: 1292.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Agrawal, A., Lingappa, J., Leppla, S.H., Agrawal, S., Jabbar, A., Quinn, C., and Pulendran, B. 2003. Impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by anthrax lethal toxin. Nature 424: 329–334.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corns, T.N. 2008. A History of Seventeenth-Century English Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Chulaevsky, V. 2014. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction. Edited ByY. Suhov. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Goin, F.J., Woodburne, M.O., Zimicz, A.N., Martin, G.M., and Chornogubsky, L. 2016. Evolutionary Contexts. Pages 125–154 in M. Woodburne, A.N. Zimicz, G.M. Martin, and L. Chornogubsky, eds. A Brief History of South American Metatherians: Evolutionary Contexts and Intercontinental Dispersals. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016.August 18. China Launches World’s First Quantum Communications Satellite. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1997. Student Loans: Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zitko, J.A. 2012. Effects of Random Cross-Sectioned Distributions, Fiber Misalignment and Interphases in Three-Dimensional Composite Models on Transverse Shear Modulus. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2006.November 11. Endless Options in a Wrap. New York Times: NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wells 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Wells 2010; Campbell and Grayson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Grayson 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Agrawal et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

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