How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hogan, C.J. 2002. Cosmology. The beginning of time. Science 295: 2223–2225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiersma, D.S., and Cavalieri, S. 2001. Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser. Nature 414: 708–709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, J.Y., Engelman, J.A., and Cantley, L.C. 2007. Biochemistry. PI3K charges ahead. Science 317: 206–207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Altschuler, S.J., Angenent, S.B., Wang, Y., and Wu, L.F. 2008. On the spontaneous emergence of cell polarity. Nature 454: 886–889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mysak, J. 2011. Encyclopedia of Municipal Bonds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tschinkel, Y., and Zarhin, Y. (eds.) 2009. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: Volume II: In Honor of Yu. I. Manin. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Green, T.R. 2016. Linking Climate Change and Groundwater. Pages 97–141 in A.J. Jakeman, O. Barreteau, R.J. Hunt, J.-D. Rinaudo, and A. Ross, eds. Integrated Groundwater Management: Concepts, Approaches and Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015.March 20. Why Are There So Many Beetles? They’re Extinction-Resistant. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1979. Opportunities for Improving Program Planning for Photovoltaic Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beasley, C.A. 2010. Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. 2007.February 18. After 117 Years, a Family Business Calls It Quits. New York Times: WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hogan 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Wiersma and Cavalieri 2001; Hogan 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiersma and Cavalieri 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Altschuler et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

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