How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer, M. 2004. Education. The evolution of postdocs. Science 306: 232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirchner, J.W., and Weil, A. 2000. Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature 404: 177–180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waelti, P., Dickinson, A., and Schultz, W. 2001. Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature 412: 43–48.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Keppler, F., Eiden, R., Niedan, V., Pracht, J., and Schöler, H.F. 2000. Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter. Nature 403: 298–301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiu, L. 2012. Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Perner, P. (ed.) 2010. Advances in Data Mining. Applications and Theoretical Aspects: 10th Industrial Conference, ICDM 2010, Berlin, Germany, July 12-14, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sall, M., Chandran, N., Terzidou, A., Lioutas, C.B., and Polychroniadis, E.K. 2015. TEM Characterization of a Complex Twinning System in 3C–SiC. Pages 25–29 in E.K. Polychroniadis, A.Y. Oral, and M. Ozer, eds. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress: Proceedings of InterM, October 16-19, 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016.July 6. Why Are People Starting To Believe In UFOs Again? IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1982. National Science Foundation Management Review of Research Grant Award Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escalante-Guerra, M. 2009. Policy analysis proposal regarding the Adoptions and Safe Family Act of 1997. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. 2015.April 23. Stride Rights. New York Times: MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singer 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kirchner and Weil 2000; Singer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirchner and Weil 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Keppler et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

Other styles