How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, C. 2006. Evolution. Reducible complexity. Science 312: 61–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denning, D.W., and Bromley, M.J. 2015. Infectious Disease. How to bolster the antifungal pipeline. Science 347: 1414–1416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishishita, S., Matsuda, Y., and Kitada, K. 2014. Genetic evidence suggests that Spata22 is required for the maintenance of Rad51 foci in mammalian meiosis. Sci. Rep. 4: 6148.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burke, K.A., Franz, T.M., Miller, D.N., and Schoenbaum, G. 2008. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the pursuit of happiness and more specific rewards. Nature 454: 340–344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore, L.A. 2010. Physical Properties of Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rahman, M.S., and Fujita, S. (eds.) 2010. WALCOM: Algorithms and Computation: 4th International Workshop, WALCOM 2010, Dhaka, Bangladesh, February 10-12, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Moolman, J., Marais, E., Genade, S., Makaula, S., and Lochner, A. 2008. The Role of the Beta-Adrenergic Signal Transduction Pathway in Myocardial Protection. Pages 67–87 in A.K. Srivastava and M.B. Anand-Srivastava, eds. Signal Transduction in the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016.May 1. First Rocky Material Found Coming From The Oort Cloud At The Edge Of The Solar System. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1987. Trademark ADP System: Patent Office Should Analyze Alternatives Before Contract Award. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman, T.W. 2017. Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 1992.August 8. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Reporter’s Notebook; Fearing Fickleness, Clinton Says, “Stick With Us.” New York Times: 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Adami 2006; Denning and Bromley 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denning and Bromley 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Burke et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

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