How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark, M.K. 2012. Continental collision slowing due to viscous mantle lithosphere rather than topography. Nature 483: 74–77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kramer, G.J., and Haigh, M. 2009. No quick switch to low-carbon energy. Nature 462: 568–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Packer, C., Pusey, A.E., and Eberly, L.E. 2001. Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science 293: 690–693.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mineur, Y.S., Abizaid, A., Rao, Y., Salas, R., DiLeone, R.J., Gündisch, D., Diano, S., De Biasi, M., Horvath, T.L., Gao, X.-B., and Picciotto, M.R. 2011. Nicotine decreases food intake through activation of POMC neurons. Science 332: 1330–1332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher, R.B., Breckon, T.P., Dawson-Howe, K., Fitzgibbon, A., Robertson, C., Trucco, E., and Williams, C.K.I. 2016. Dictionary of Computer Vision and Image Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yamamoto, S. (ed.) 2013. Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Interaction Design: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Onay-Besikci, A. 2014. Substrate Metabolism in the Diabetic Heart. Pages 65–76 in B. Turan and N.S. Dhalla, eds. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014.September 16. Earliest Evidence of Parental Care Found in Beetle Fossils. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1987. U.S. Science and Engineering Base: A Synthesis of Concerns About Budget and Policy Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shlapak, A. 2013. Mental health of foster youth in Ventura County. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. 2017.June 29. Bold Talk On Gangs And Sugar. New York Times: A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clark 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kramer and Haigh 2009; Clark 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kramer and Haigh 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mineur et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

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