How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Soil Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Soil Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yoder, A.D. 2013. Evolution. Fossils versus clocks. Science 339: 656–658.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazio, T.J.W., and LaRosa, T.N. 2005. Astronomy. At the heart of the Milky Way. Science 307: 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, J.N., Okuyama, T., and DeAngelis, D.L. 2006. Comment on “Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance.” Science 313: 1887; author reply 1887.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Samaha, H., Pignata, A., Fousek, K., Ren, J., Lam, F.W., Stossi, F., Dubrulle, J., Salsman, V.S., Krishnan, S., Hong, S.-H., Baker, M.L., Shree, A., Gad, A.Z., Shum, T., Fukumura, D., Byrd, T.T., Mukherjee, M., Marrelli, S.P., Orange, J.S., Joseph, S.K., Sorensen, P.H., Taylor, M.D., Hegde, M., Mamonkin, M., Jain, R.K., El-Naggar, S., and Ahmed, N. 2018. A homing system targets therapeutic T cells to brain cancer. Nature 561: 331–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Chouikha, M. 2016. Organizational Design for Knowledge Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Keirsbilck, B., Devroe, W., and Claes, E. (eds.) 2009. Facing the Limits of the Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fairclough, S.R. 2015. Choanoflagellates: Perspective on the Origin of Animal Multicellularity. Pages 99–116 in I. Ruiz-Trillo and A.M. Nedelcu, eds. Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life: Principles and mechanisms. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016.October 19. What Do We Know About Marijuana’s Medical Benefits? Two Experts Explain The Evidence. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995. NSF’s Academic Facilities Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sarkar, D. 2008. Nanopass compiler infrastructure. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. 2008.October 12. Hurdy Gurdy Man. New York Times: ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yoder 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lazio and LaRosa 2005; Yoder 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazio and LaRosa 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Samaha et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Soil Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Soil Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-4271
ISSN (online)1918-1841
ScopeSoil Science

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