How to format your references using the BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mervis J. Department of Energy. Nominee scores cabinet hat trick. Science. 2004;306:2018.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shapiro L, Losick R. Retrospective. Francois Jacob (1920-2013). Science. 2013;340:939.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fuchs B, Sornette D, Thurner S. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6526.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Suwa G, Kono RT, Katoh S, Asfaw B, Beyene Y. A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in Ethiopia. Nature. 2007;448:921–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stavetski EJ. Managing Hedge Fund Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Lichtfouse E, editor. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 17. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shi H, Kurata Y. Modeling Ontological Concepts of Locations with a Heterogeneous Cardinal Direction Model. In: Bi Y, Williams M-A, editors. Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 4th International Conference, KSEM 2010, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 4–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. House Science Committee Tweets Breitbart Article Denouncing Climate Change. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Education Benefits: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight of Tuition Assistance Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ficchi G. A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play? Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bowley G, Ember S. Will Her Story Convict Cosby? New York Times. 2017;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Ear Nose Throat Disord.
ISSN (online)1472-6815

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