How to format your references using the BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Riley P. Journal club. A molecular cardiologist looks into getting to the heart of his inner fish. Nature. 2009;460:1061.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shang Y, Brown M. Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science. 2002;295:2465–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chaudhari NK, Song MY, Yu J-S. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5221.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Toyoshima C, Nakasako M, Nomura H, Ogawa H. Crystal structure of the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum at 2.6 A resolution. Nature. 2000;405:647–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lachin JM. Biostatistical Methods: The Assessment of Relative Risks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Kirita T, Omura K, editors. Oral Cancer: Diagnosis and Therapy. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jóźwiak W, Jankowski J, Ernst T. Natural Variations of the Geomagnetic Field: Observations and Application to Study of the Earth’s Interior and Ionosphere. In: Bialik R, Majdański M, Moskalik M, editors. Achievements, History and Challenges in Geophysics: 60th Anniversary of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 65–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Artificial Recreation Of Happy Memories May Become The Next Big Weapon Against Depression. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information on the Funded Legal Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Leal LS. Pair correlations in clean magnetic Josephson junctions. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwartz J, Schlossberg T. Little Debating a Climate Divide. New York Times. 2016;:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Ear Nose Throat Disord.
ISSN (online)1472-6815

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