How to format your references using the BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kassen R. If you want to win the game, you must join in. Nature. 2011;480:153.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hespos SJ, Spelke ES. Conceptual precursors to language. Nature. 2004;430:453–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Guedes JD, Bocinsky RK, Butler EE. Asian archaeology. Comment on "Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P. ". Science. 2015;348:872.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, et al. Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science. 2006;311:91–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sóbester A, Forrester AIJ. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Castelnuovo P. Surgical Anatomy of the Internal Carotid Artery: An Atlas for Skull Base Surgeons. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Betlemidze M. Ethnic Conflicts and Deleuzo-Guattarian Rhizomes of Cultural Affirmation. In: Roy S, Shaw IS, editors. Communicating Differences: Culture, Media, Peace and Conflict Negotiation. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 68–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Ancient Mayan Village Preserved In Volcanic Ash Lets Us Peer Into The Lives Of Ordinary People. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/ancient-mayan-elites-may-not-have-been-autocratic-we-thought/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Environmental Protection: Solving NASA’s Current Problems Requires Agencywide Emphasis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hasbini MA. The Great Recession of 2007 and the Housing Market Crash: Why Did So Many Builders Fail? Lessons for the Local Homebuilding Industry. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016;:MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Ear Nose Throat Disord.
ISSN (online)1472-6815
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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