How to format your references using the BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mayhew JEW. Neuroscience. A measured look at neuronal oxygen consumption. Science. 2003;299:1023–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hulleman CS, Harackiewicz JM. Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science. 2009;326:1410–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Allen M, Raper S, Mitchell J. Climate change. Uncertainty in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report. Science. 2001;293:430–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Keeling PJ, Archibald JM, Fast NM, Palmer JD. Comment on “The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton.” Science. 2004;306:2191; author reply 2191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lacalle D, Parrilla D. The Energy World is Flat. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Greenberg I. Processing: Creative Coding and Generative Art in Processing 2. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Teng Z, Zhang B. An Optimization Method of Fusing Multiple Decisions in Object Detection. In: Peng W-C, Wang H, Bailey J, Tseng VS, Ho TB, Zhou Z-H, et al., editors. Trends and Applications in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: PAKDD 2014 International Workshops: DANTH, BDM, MobiSocial, BigEC, CloudSD, MSMV-MBI, SDA, DMDA-Health, ALSIP, SocNet, DMBIH, BigPMA,Tainan, Taiwan, May 13-16, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Strangest Prehistoric Creatures To Ever Appear on Earth. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in the Migrant Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Breska J. Mentoring for juvenile gang members and at-risk youth: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Accountability Would Seem to Begin and End With Referees. New York Times. 2011;:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders
AbbreviationBMC Ear Nose Throat Disord.
ISSN (online)1472-6815

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