How to format your references using the Biometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roubik, D.W. (2002) The value of bees to the coffee harvest. Nature, 417, 708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovács, A.D. and Pearce, D.A. (2013) Location- and sex-specific differences in weight and motor coordination in two commonly used mouse strains. Scientific reports, 3, 2116.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rafkin, S.C.R., Sta Maria, M.R.V. and Michaels, T.I. (2002) Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model. Nature, 419, 697–699.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
García, R.A., Turck-Chièze, S., Jiménez-Reyes, S.J., Ballot, J., Pallé, P.L., Eff-Darwich, A., et al. (2007) Tracking solar gravity modes: the dynamics of the solar core. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 1591–1593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow, S.-C. and Liu, J.-P. (2005) Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tan, K.-Y. (ed). (2013) Colorectal Cancer in the Elderly. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, D., Yu, M., Low, C.B. and Arogeti, S. (2013) Fault Identification Techniques. Model-based Health Monitoring of Hybrid Systems (eds M. Yu),, C.B. Low), & S. Arogeti), pp. 147–189. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biometrics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016) The EU Wants To Make All Scientific Papers Free To Access By 2020. IFLScience. URL [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013) Aviation Safety: FAA Efforts Have Improved Safety, but Challenges Remain in Key Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pryor, G.L. (2013) Effects of a Balance-Specific Exercise Program on Blood Pressure Medication Usage. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2011) Two Rulings Find Cuts In Pensions Permissible. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roubik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Roubik, 2002; Kovács and Pearce, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kovács and Pearce, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Rafkin, Sta Maria and Michaels, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (García et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiometrics
ISSN (print)0006-341X
ISSN (online)1541-0420
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Statistics and Probability
General Medicine

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