How to format your references using the Biometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Porter, S.M. (2007) Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Demaurex, N. and Poburko, D. (2009) Cell biology. A revolving door for calcium. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326, 57–58.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hull, P.M., Darroch, S.A.F. and Erwin, D.H. (2015) Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems. Nature, 528, 345–351.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharma, S., Ray, S., Moiyadi, A., Sridhar, E. and Srivastava, S. (2014) Quantitative proteomic analysis of meningiomas for the identification of surrogate protein markers. Scientific reports, 4, 7140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niles, J.D. (2016) Old English Literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Choudary, A.D.R. (2014) Real Analysis on Intervals (ed CP Niculescu). Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanfelice Bazanella, A., Campestrini, L. and Eckhard, D. (2012) Convergence to the Globally Optimal Controller. Data-Driven Controller Design: The H2 Approach Communications and Control Engineering. (eds L. Campestrini), & D. Eckhard), pp. 89–117. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biometrics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017) Volcanic Hydrogen Can Help Sustain Life In The Universe. IFLScience. URL [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973) Protest Against Award for Computer System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lincoln, J.J. (2010) Creating a Lesson That Addresses Gender Differences in Physics Testing a Specific Instructional Technique in College Level Physics Education. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G. (2013) Bringing Fresh Interpretations to Vintage Verdi and Handel. New York Times, 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Porter, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Porter, 2007; Demaurex and Poburko, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Demaurex and Poburko, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Hull, Darroch and Erwin, 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sharma et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiometrics
ISSN (print)0006-341X
ISSN (online)1541-0420
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Statistics and Probability
General Medicine

Other styles