How to format your references using the Biometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein, R. (2015) From war to science paradise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348, 602.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegde, D. and Mowery, D.C. (2008) Research funding. Politics and funding in the U.S. public biomedical R&D system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322, 1797–1798.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick, M.I., Watson, S.-A. and Munday, P.L. (2013) Ocean acidification reverses competition for space as habitats degrade. Scientific reports, 3, 3280.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gansel, J.K., Thiel, M., Rill, M.S., Decker, M., Bade, K., Saile, V., et al. (2009) Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325, 1513–1515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kracke, E.-A. and Lodde, K. (2011) Leitfaden Straßenbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Andersson, K., Eberhartinger, E. and Oxelheim, L. (eds). (2007) National Tax Policy in Europe: To Be or Not to Be? Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Blackwell, A. (2016) Shakespearean Actors, Memes, Social Media and the Circulation of Shakespearean ‘Value.’ Shakespeare’s Cultural Capital: His Economic Impact from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century (eds D. Shellard), & S. Keenan), pp. 77–98. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biometrics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Watch The Funniest Interview Of Stephen Hawking Ever. IFLScience. URL [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000) Port Infrastructure: Financing of Navigation Projects at Small and Medium-Sized Ports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. (2015) Two Predictors of Smoking Behaviors in the LGBTQ Population: Anxiety and Internalized Homophobia. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pear, R. and Kelly, K. (2017) Trump Concedes Health Overhaul Is a Thorny Task. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hegde and Mowery, 2008; Bernstein, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hegde and Mowery, 2008)
  • Three authors: (McCormick, Watson and Munday, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gansel et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiometrics
ISSN (print)0006-341X
ISSN (online)1541-0420
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Statistics and Probability
General Medicine

Other styles