How to format your references using the Biology and Fertility of Soils citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology and Fertility of Soils. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Archibald JM (2015) Evolution: Gene transfer in complex cells. Nature 524:423–424
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox P, Jones C (2008) Climate change. Illuminating the modern dance of climate and CO2. Science 321:1642–1644
A journal article with 3 authors
Dankert A, Dulal RS, Dash SP (2013) Efficient spin injection into silicon and the role of the Schottky barrier. Sci Rep 3:3196
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Barbeau K, Rue EL, Bruland KW, Butler A (2001) Photochemical cycling of iron in the surface ocean mediated by microbial iron(III)-binding ligands. Nature 413:409–413

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR (2009) Fundraising Law Made Easy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Meleard S (2015) Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Klumpp J, Loessner MJ (2014) Detection of Bacteria with Bioluminescent Reporter Bacteriophage. In: Thouand G, Marks R (eds) Bioluminescence: Fundamentals and Applications in Biotechnology - Volume 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 155–171

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology and Fertility of Soils.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) The Coolest New Animal Species Discovered In 2016. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Review of Vending Operations on Federally Controlled Property. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salifu A (2008) Names that prick: Royal praise names in Dagbon, northern Ghana. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Bright, Brassy and All Bette. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Archibald 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cox and Jones 2008; Archibald 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Jones 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Barbeau et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology and Fertility of Soils
AbbreviationBiol. Fertil. Soils
ISSN (print)0178-2762
ISSN (online)1432-0789
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science

Other styles