How to format your references using the Biology and Fertility of Soils citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology and Fertility of Soils. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser J (2000) ECOLOGY: California Algae May Be Feared European Species. Science 289:222b–3b
A journal article with 2 authors
Margoliash D, Tchernichovski O (2015) DEVELOPMENT. Marmoset kids actually listen. Science 349:688–689
A journal article with 3 authors
Cordier P, Amodeo J, Carrez P (2012) Modelling the rheology of MgO under Earth’s mantle pressure, temperature and strain rates. Nature 481:177–180
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hatfield SD, Shcherbata HR, Fischer KA, et al (2005) Stem cell division is regulated by the microRNA pathway. Nature 435:974–978

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnini S, Corain L, Marozzi M, Salmaso L (2014) Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing: Rank and Permutation Methods with Applications in R. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Nguyen HT (2012) Computing Statistics under Interval and Fuzzy Uncertainty: Applications to Computer Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lee DD, Yi S-J, McGill S, et al (2012) RoboCup 2011 Humanoid League Winners. In: Röfer T, Mayer NM, Savage J, Saranlı U (eds) RoboCup 2011: Robot Soccer World Cup XV. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology and Fertility of Soils.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Failed Stars Could Reveal New Clues About How Planets Form. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Need for Better Management of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mohajer R (2012) A transcendental approach to John Coltrane: applying concepts of spirituality to Giant Steps into the Cosmos. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2001) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rare Praise On Chechnya. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser 2000; Margoliash and Tchernichovski 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margoliash and Tchernichovski 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hatfield et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology and Fertility of Soils
AbbreviationBiol. Fertil. Soils
ISSN (print)0178-2762
ISSN (online)1432-0789
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science

Other styles