How to format your references using the Biology and Fertility of Soils citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biology and Fertility of Soils. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Herrling P (2006) Experiments in social responsibility. Nature 439:267–268
A journal article with 2 authors
Shchukin D, Möhwald H (2013) Materials science. A coat of many functions. Science 341:1458–1459
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang P-Y, Weng J, Anderson RGW (2005) OSBP is a cholesterol-regulated scaffolding protein in control of ERK 1/2 activation. Science 307:1472–1476
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kurakawa T, Ueda N, Maekawa M, et al (2007) Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme. Nature 445:652–655

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen J (2017) Chemiereaktoren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Sarti A, Montanari F, Galofaro F (eds) (2015) Morphogenesis and Individuation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed SA (2016) Dental Image Registration Using Particle Swarm Optimized for Thin Plate Splines from Semi-automatic Correspondences. In: Hassanien A-E, Grosan C, Fahmy Tolba M (eds) Applications of Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine: Current Trends and Open Problems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 91–115

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biology and Fertility of Soils.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Parents’ Views on Vaccines are Changing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Environmental Satellites: Planning Required to Mitigate Near-term Risks and Ensure Long-term Continuity. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros TR (2009) A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir SM (2015) The High Price of Pretty Nails. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Herrling 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Herrling 2006; Shchukin and Möhwald 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shchukin and Möhwald 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kurakawa et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiology and Fertility of Soils
AbbreviationBiol. Fertil. Soils
ISSN (print)0178-2762
ISSN (online)1432-0789
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science

Other styles