How to format your references using the Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Epigenetics: The genome unwrapped. Nature 2015;528:S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fortey R, Chatterton B. A Devonian trilobite with an eyeshade. Science 2003;301:1689.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bo T-L, Zhang H, Zheng X-J. Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand. Sci Rep 2014;4:5590.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cao Y, Wang C, Zhang X, Xing G, Lu K, Gu Y, et al. Selective small molecule compounds increase BMP-2 responsiveness by inhibiting Smurf1-mediated Smad1/5 degradation. Sci Rep 2014;4:4965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schrör K. Acetylsalicylic Acid. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
Jones T. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Niu Y, Qiu X. The Global-Local Mental Rotation in Divided Attention Paradigm. In: Liu D, Alippi C, Zhao D, Hussain A, editors. Advances in Brain Inspired Cognitive Systems: 6th International Conference, BICS 2013, Beijing, China, June 9-11, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 30–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J. In the Wild, Lizard Sex Determination is Climate-Sensitive. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DHS Science and Technology: Additional Steps Needed to Ensure Test and Evaluation Requirements Are Met. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wurster KW. Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Super Powers: Turning a Dime Into a Million Bucks. New York Times 2010:WK2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationBiocybern. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0208-5216
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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