How to format your references using the Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loewenstein G. Social science. The pleasures and pains of information. Science 2006;312:704–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sneden C, Cowan JJ. Genesis of the heaviest elements in the Milky Way Galaxy. Science 2003;299:70–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim C, Xuong N-H, Taylor SS. Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science 2005;307:690–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yan H, Chu YS, Maser J, Nazaretski E, Kim J, Kang HC, et al. Quantitative x-ray phase imaging at the nanoscale by multilayer Laue lenses. Sci Rep 2013;3:1307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Numai T. Laser Diodes and their Applications to Communications and Information Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Chen X, Wang Q, Luo YC, editors. Reading Development and Difficulties in Monolingual and Bilingual Chinese Children. vol. 8. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Malm H, Oskarsson M, Warrant E. Biologically inspired enhancement of dim light video. In: Humphrey JAC, Srinivasan MV, editors. Frontiers in Sensing: From Biology to Engineering, Vienna: Springer; 2012, p. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Second Inexplicable Die Off Of 60,000 Antelopes. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Flexible Agreements with Guaranty Agencies Warrant Careful Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann RC. Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Feeding Nostalgia With a Remix. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationBiocybern. Biomed. Eng.
ISSN (print)0208-5216
ScopeBiomedical Engineering

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