How to format your references using the Archives of Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Korotev RL. Planetary science. A unique chunk of the Moon. Science. 2004;305:622–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fedo CM, Whitehouse MJ. Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science. 2002;296:1448–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Spiegelhalter D, Pearson M, Short I. Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science. 2011;333:1393–400.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Planatscher H, Rimmele S, Michel G, Pötz O, Joos T, Schneiderhan-Marra N. Systematic reference sample generation for multiplexed serological assays. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bitam S, Mellouk A. Bio-Inspired Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Picot A. The Internationalization of German Software-based Companies: Sustainable Growth Strategies for Small and Medium-sized Companies. Hess T, Hörndlein C, Kaltenecker N, Jablonka C, Schreiner M, Werbik A, et al., editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Teodor V, Cucu M, Oancea N. The Worm Cutter Tool Profiling Based on Discreet Surfaces Representation. In: Mastorakis N, Mladenov V, Kontargyri VT, editors. Proceedings of the European Computing Conference: Volume 2. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Physiotherapy.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Ancient Virus Revived From 700-Year-Old Caribou Feces [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-virus-dna-revived-700-year-old-caribou-feces/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress in Planning Governmentwide Program but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Sep. Report No.: GAO-04-1085T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nelson AF. Anxiety in the process of individuation. An in-depth psychological study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Inspiring Horse Honored. New York Times. 2012 Jan 14;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Physiotherapy
AbbreviationArch. Physiother.
ISSN (online)2057-0082
Scope

Other styles