How to format your references using the Archives of Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bekoff M. Animal reflections. Nature. 2002;419:255.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Metzger CH, Karrai K. Cavity cooling of a microlever. Nature. 2004;432:1002–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Huang S, Bai M, Wang L. General and facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic nanocrystals with poly(amino acid) for cell luminescence imaging. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2023.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jean-Baptiste P, Petit JR, Lipenkov VY, Raynaud D, Barkov NI. Constraints on hydrothermal processes and water exchange in Lake Vostok from helium isotopes. Nature. 2001;411:460–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Baker WL, Marn MV, Zawada CC. The Price Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Emadzadeh AA. Navigation in Space by X-ray Pulsars. Speyer JL, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Friedrich P, Rossato J. Culture for Organizational Learning in Turbulent Environments. In: North K, Varvakis G, editors. Competitive Strategies for Small and Medium Enterprises: Increasing Crisis Resilience, Agility and Innovation in Turbulent Times. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 45–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Physiotherapy.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Scientists Find The Cells At The Root Of Balding And Gray Hair [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-88-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nellenbach KM. Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Company Town. New York Times. 2017 Sep 7;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Physiotherapy
AbbreviationArch. Physiother.
ISSN (online)2057-0082

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