How to format your references using the Frontiers in Movement Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Movement Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cole-Turner, R. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. What defines us? Science 331, 548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik, P., and Smith, A. (2002). Biotech jobs are still around despite the recent bumpy ride. Nature 418, 4–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Advani, M. J., Rajagopalan, M., and Reddy, P. H. (2014). Calmodulin-like protein from M. tuberculosis H37Rv is required during infection. Sci. Rep. 4, 6861.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hodgkin, S. T., Oppenheimer, B. R., Hambly, N. C., Jameson, R. F., Smartt, S. J., and Steele, I. A. (2000). Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star. Nature 403, 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodhew, S. (2016). Sustainable Construction Processes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Grancharova, A. (2012). Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications. , ed. T. A. Johansen Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Björn, L. O. (2008). “Light as a Tool for Biologists: Recent Developments,” in Photobiology: The Science of Life and Light, ed. L. O. Björn (New York, NY: Springer), 93–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Movement Disorders.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017). These US Military Drones Can Swarm Together Using A Hive Mind. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983). Cost Recovery Practices Inconsistent With Government Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kerr, A. B. (2012). Exploring relationship awareness in organizational change using the Strength Deployment Inventory.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2009). A Bit Late, but Bounteous. New York Times, NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cole-Turner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik and Smith, 2002; Cole-Turner, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smaglik and Smith, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hodgkin et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Movement Disorders
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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