How to format your references using the Antioxidants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Antioxidants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Odling-Smee, L. Biofuels bandwagon hits a rut. Nature 2007, 446, 483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keeling, M.J.; Gilligan, C.A. Metapopulation dynamics of bubonic plague. Nature 2000, 407, 903–906.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrews-Hanna, J.C.; Phillips, R.J.; Zuber, M.T. Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars. Nature 2007, 446, 163–166.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B. Elastic moduli of permanently densified silica glasses. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neward, T.; Erickson, A.C.; Crowell, T.; Minerich, R. Professional F# 2.0; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010; ISBN 9781118257449.
An edited book
Treating NVLD in Children: Professional Collaborations for Positive Outcomes; Broitman, J., Davis, J.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461461784.
A chapter in an edited book
Miyazaki, T.; Ishikura, K.; Honda, A.; Ra, S.-G.; Komine, S.; Miyamoto, Y.; Ohmori, H.; Matsuzaki, Y. Increased N-Acetyltaurine in Serum and Urine After Endurance Exercise in Human. In Taurine 9; Marcinkiewicz, J., Schaffer, S.W., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 53–62 ISBN 9783319151250.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Antioxidants.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Even Buying Online, Choices Can Embarrass Us Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chhun, S. Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eder, S.; Protess, B. Snarl of Foreign Ties Arises in Trump Hotel Deal. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAntioxidants
AbbreviationAntioxidants (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3921
Cell Biology
Clinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology

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