How to format your references using the American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karsenty G. The complexities of skeletal biology. Nature 423: 316–318, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell G, Gonzalez A. Adaptation and evolutionary rescue in metapopulations experiencing environmental deterioration. Science 332: 1327–1330, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gutfreund Y, Zheng W, Knudsen EI. Gated visual input to the central auditory system. Science 297: 1556–1559, 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Crooker SA, Rickel DG, Balatsky AV, Smith DL. Spectroscopy of spontaneous spin noise as a probe of spin dynamics and magnetic resonance. Nature 431: 49–52, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grist F. Basic Guide to Orthodontic Dental Nursing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
An edited book
Müller AHE, Schmidt H-W, editors. Complex Macromolecular Systems II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Callinicos A. Marxism: and the Very Idea of Critical Political Economy. In: The Palgrave Handbook of Critical International Political Economy, edited by Cafruny A, Talani LS, Pozo Martin G. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, p. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. What Really Is A Planet? New Definition Solves Dilemma [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management: Amtrak’s Route Profitability Schedules Need Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roettger ME. Three essays on social inequality and the U.S. criminal justice system. University of North Carolina: 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Clinton, Off and Running, Sees the Sun Rise on ’93. New York Times: 18, 1993.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology
AbbreviationAm. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
ISSN (print)1931-857X
ISSN (online)1522-1466

Other styles