How to format your references using the American Journal of Human Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Human Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nichols, S. (2011). Experimental philosophy and the problem of free will. Science 331, 1401–1403.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wiseman, B.S., and Werb, Z. (2002). Stromal effects on mammary gland development and breast cancer. Science 296, 1046–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Harmon, J.P., Moran, N.A., and Ives, A.R. (2009). Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution. Science 323, 1347–1350.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. He, Y., Vogelstein, B., Velculescu, V.E., Papadopoulos, N., and Kinzler, K.W. (2008). The antisense transcriptomes of human cells. Science 322, 1855–1857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jayaweera, S.K. (2014). Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc).
An edited book
1. (2012). Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations: Proceedings of the Second International Conference “Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations” CMMNO’2012 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rieber, R.W., and Kelly, R.J. (2014). The Cult of Celebrity: How Hollywood Conquered Reality. In Film, Television and the Psychology of the Social Dream, R.J. Kelly, ed. (New York, NY: Springer), pp. 103–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Human Genetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. (2014). Watch A Bizarrely Long Parasite Emerge From This Praying Mantis (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1991). Railroad Safety: Weaknesses in FRA’s Safety Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Khalili, A. (2017). Spectrally formulated user-defined element in Abaqus for wave motion analysis and health monitoring of composite structures. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard, M. (2010). Looking Hot When It’s Cold. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
AbbreviationAm. J. Hum. Genet.
ISSN (print)0002-9297
ISSN (online)1537-6605

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