How to format your references using the American Journal of Human Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Human Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wilson, J.M. (2009). Medicine. A history lesson for stem cells. Science 324, 727–728.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Smith, J.L., and Sherman, D.H. (2008). Biochemistry. An enzyme assembly line. Science 321, 1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Urban, F.E., Cole, J.E., and Overpeck, J.T. (2000). Influence of mean climate change on climate variability from a 155-year tropical Pacific coral record. Nature 407, 989–993.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. He, X., Pan, D., Bai, Y., Wang, D., and Hao, Z. (2014). A new simple concept for ocean colour remote sensing using parallel polarisation radiance. Sci. Rep. 4, 3748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Malina, M. (2013). Delivering Sustainable Buildings (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd).
An edited book
1. (2009). Computational Science – ICCS 2009: 9th International Conference Baton Rouge, LA, USA, May 25-27, 2009 Proceedings, Part I (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shen, B., Stephansson, O., and Rinne, M. (2014). Iteration Process in FRACOD. In Modelling Rock Fracturing Processes: A Fracture Mechanics Approach Using FRACOD, O. Stephansson, and M. Rinne, eds. (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), pp. 33–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Human Genetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. (2015). Electric Aircraft – The Future Of Aviation Or Just Wishful Thinking? (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1989). Student Athletes: Most Schools Meet Proposed Academic Performance Reporting Requirements (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Arnold, D.M. (2017). An Examination of Job Satisfaction Among Full-Time Faculty in a Selected Mississippi Community College. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chivers, C.J., ERIN ARVEDLUND; C.J. Chivers reported from Moscow; Erin Arvedlund from Moscow, Buchalki;, and Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Domodedovo International Airport for this article (2004). Investigators Seek Causes of Near-Simultaneous Jet Crashes in Russia That Killed 89. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
AbbreviationAm. J. Hum. Genet.
ISSN (print)0002-9297
ISSN (online)1537-6605

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