How to format your references using the Alternatives to Animal Experimentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (ALTEX). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seiradakis, J. H. (2000). Pulsar astronomy. Older than they look. Nature 406, 139–140
A journal article with 2 authors
Gómez, F. J. and Waymouth, R. M. (2002). Polymer synthesis. Catalysts rise to the challenge. Science 295, 635–636
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S.-Y., Hakoshima, T. and Kitano, K. (2013). Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein. Sci Rep 3, 3294
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, H., Chen, Z., Zheng, Y. et al. (2009). A high-mobility electron-transporting polymer for printed transistors. Nature 457, 679–686

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kappe, C. O., Stadler, A. and Dallinger, D. (2012). Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Patt, Y. N., Foglia, P., Duesterwald, E. et al. (eds.) (2010). High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: 5th International Conference, HiPEAC 2010, Pisa, Italy, January 25-27, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kolell, A. and Ginige, J. A. (2011). Workflow Management Issues in Virtual Enterprise Networks. In J. Filipe and J. Cordeiro (eds.), Enterprise Information Systems: 12th International Conference, ICEIS 2010, Funchal-Madeira, Portugal, June 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (48–59). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alternatives to Animal Experimentation.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Madagascar’s ‘Swamp Lemurs’ Have Been Documented For The First Time. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970). Savings Possible by Buying Automatic Data Processing Equipment or by Leasing It From Commercial Leasing Firms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, D. J. (2010). How the Lead Systems Integrator Experience Should Enhance Efforts to Rebuild the Defense Acquisition Workforce. Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, B. Y. K. (2000). In Search of Starry, Starry Nights. New York Times, 143

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seiradakis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seiradakis, 2000; Gómez and Waymouth, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gómez and Waymouth, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlternatives to Animal Experimentation
ISSN (print)0946-7785

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