How to format your references using the Alternatives to Animal Experimentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (ALTEX). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNab, B. K. (2003). Metabolism: ecology shapes bird bioenergetics. Nature 426, 620–621
A journal article with 2 authors
Melosh, H. J. and Collins, G. S. (2005). Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact. Nature 434, 157
A journal article with 3 authors
Horne-Badovinac, S., Rebagliati, M. and Stainier, D. Y. R. (2003). A cellular framework for gut-looping morphogenesis in zebrafish. Science 302, 662–665
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, K., Raghavan, S., Nelesen, S. et al. (2009). Rapid and accurate large-scale coestimation of sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees. Science 324, 1561–1564

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, G. S. (2013). Straight to the Top. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abraham, A., Lloret Mauri, J., Buford, J. F. et al. (eds.) (2011). Advances in Computing and Communications: First International Conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blauert, J. and Xiang, N. (2009). Magnetic-Field Transducers. In N. Xiang (ed.), Acoustics for Engineers: Troy Lectures (55–69). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alternatives to Animal Experimentation.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017). How LSD Could Change The World. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Commercial Maritime Industry: Supplemental Information on Federal Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat, A. M. (2015). Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). It’s Good to Have Best Sellers. New York Times, E6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNab, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (McNab, 2003; Melosh and Collins, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melosh and Collins, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlternatives to Animal Experimentation
ISSN (print)0946-7785

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