How to format your references using the Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Bot, N. Developmental Biology: Earn Your Wings. Nature 2015, 519, 420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hwang, I.; Sheen, J. Two-Component Circuitry in Arabidopsis Cytokinin Signal Transduction. Nature 2001, 413, 383–389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loughlin, P.C.; Willows, R.D.; Chen, M. In Vitro Conversion of Vinyl to Formyl Groups in Naturally Occurring Chlorophylls. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6069.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roberge, A.; Feldman, P.D.; Weinberger, A.J.; Deleuil, M.; Bouret, J.-C. Stabilization of the Disk around Beta Pictoris by Extremely Carbon-Rich Gas. Nature 2006, 441, 724–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J.; Wang, Q. Body Area Communications; John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd: Singapore, 2012; ISBN 9781118188491.
An edited book
PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications; Zhang, J., Ed.; Springer: London, 2008; ISBN 9781848009356.
A chapter in an edited book
Konopka, A.; van Beers, W. Compositionwork: A Method for Self Exploration and Development. In Assessing and Stimulating a Dialogical Self in Groups, Teams, Cultures, and Organizations; Hermans, H., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 55–73 ISBN 9783319324814.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Earth Was Once Completely Covered In A Crusty Shell Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Improvements Needed in General Automated Data Processing Controls at the National Finance Center; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pundir, B. Surface Pressure Fluctuations Due to an Impinging Underexpanded Supersonic Jet. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Maine Giving Social Security Another Look. New York Times 2010, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithms
ISSN (online)1999-4893
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

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