How to format your references using the Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koroshetz, W.J. Perspective: Time to Tackle Blood Pressure. Nature 2014, 510, S4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srokosz, M.A.; Bryden, H.L. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Yields a Decade of Inevitable Surprises. Science 2015, 348, 1255575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shah, A.K.; Mullainathan, S.; Shafir, E. Some Consequences of Having Too Little. Science 2012, 338, 682–685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, K.; Meng, Y.S.; Bréger, J.; Grey, C.P.; Ceder, G. Electrodes with High Power and High Capacity for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Science 2006, 311, 977–980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toptygin, I.N. Electromagnetic Phenomena in Matter; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527693474.
An edited book
Potts, K. Textpattern Solutions: PHP-Based Content Management Made Easy; Sable, R., Smith, N., Fredborg, M., Lindley, C., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2007; ISBN 9781590598320.
A chapter in an edited book
Muller-Parker, G.; D’Elia, C.F.; Cook, C.B. Interactions Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Algae. In Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene; Birkeland, C., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; pp. 99–116 ISBN 9789401772488.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithms.

Blog post
Fang, J. Male Seahorse Pregnancies Aren’t That Peculiar Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Performance Appraisal Information From Selected Federal Agencies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denno, D. Multiple Paths to First Grade: A Comparison of Child, Parent, and Early Education Variables Associated with Multiple Year Kindergarten Experiences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Quiet Campaigns Begin For Presidency of I.O.C. New York Times 2013, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithms
ISSN (online)1999-4893
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

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