How to format your references using the Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. Photocopiers for DNA. Nature 2005, 435, 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kondo, T.; Hayashi, S. Mitotic cell rounding accelerates epithelial invagination. Nature 2013, 494, 125–129.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorsen, T.; Maerkl, S.J.; Quake, S.R. Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science 2002, 298, 580–584.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Israelian, G.; Mena, E.D.; Santos, N.C.; Sousa, S.G.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.; Cerdeña, C.D.; Rebolo, R.; Randich, S. Enhanced lithium depletion in Sun-like stars with orbiting planets. Nature 2009, 462, 189–191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trigeassou, J.-C. Electrical Machines Diagnosis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118601662.
An edited book
Bailey, A. Hume’s Critique of Religion: “Sick Men’s Dreams”; O’Brien, D., Ed.; The New Synthese Historical Library; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 72; ISBN 9789400766143.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerber, J.; Arms, H.; Wiecher, M.; Danner, C. Flexibility Surprises – Its Significance and Its Value. In Leveraging Flexibility: Win the Race with Dynamic Decision Management; Arms, H., Wiecher, M., Danner, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 56–62 ISBN 9783642543616.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrew, D. How A Nasty, Brain-Eating Parasite Could Help Us Fight Cancer Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: IRS Needs to Improve Its Processes for Prioritizing and Reporting Performance of Investments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Binkley, P.M. Relationship of Graduate Student Involvement to Graduate Alumni Donor Behavior. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. Friends, Artists and Partners. New York Times 2014, ST25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithms
ISSN (online)1999-4893
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

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