How to format your references using the Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E. Mothers of invention? Nature 2006, 442, 973.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lambolez, F.; Rocha, B. Immunology. A molecular gut reaction. Science 2001, 294, 1848–1849.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Wang, L. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mora, C.; Chittaro, P.M.; Sale, P.F.; Kritzer, J.P.; Ludsin, S.A. Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity. Nature 2003, 421, 933–936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, F.B. Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470692424.
An edited book
Action-Based Quality Management: Strategy and Tools for Continuous Improvement; Peris-Ortiz, M., Álvarez-García, J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319064529.
A chapter in an edited book
McDonald, B.; McGehee, S.; Landrum, R. Laying Out a Report. In Pro SQL Server 2012 Reporting Services; McGehee, S., Landrum, R., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2012; pp. 61–88 ISBN 9781430238102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithms.

Blog post
Taub, B. Worms Can Taste Sunlight Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Discretionary Grants: Education Needs to Improve Its Oversight of Grants Monitoring; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2017;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packard, J.A. Analyzing the intersection of leadership practices, emotional intelligence, and coping responses in women -owned small businesses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. P.S. Jerusalem. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithms
ISSN (online)1999-4893
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles