How to format your references using the Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nosonovsky, M. Materials Science: Slippery When Wetted. Nature 2011, 477, 412–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurita, R.; Tanaka, H. Critical-like Phenomena Associated with Liquid-Liquid Transition in a Molecular Liquid. Science 2004, 306, 845–848.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karnath, H.O.; Ferber, S.; Himmelbach, M. Spatial Awareness Is a Function of the Temporal Not the Posterior Parietal Lobe. Nature 2001, 411, 950–953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Irifune, T.; Kurio, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Inoue, T.; Sumiya, H. Materials: Ultrahard Polycrystalline Diamond from Graphite. Nature 2003, 421, 599–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attoh-Okine, N.O. Big Data and Differential Privacy; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119229070.
An edited book
Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking; Shen, X., Yu, H., Buford, J., Akon, M., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; ISBN 9780387097503.
A chapter in an edited book
Manolopoulos, Y.; Nanopoulos, A.; Papadopoulos, A.N.; Theodoridis, Y. Fundamental Query Processing Techniques. In R-Trees: Theory and Applications; Nanopoulos, A., Papadopoulos, A.N., Theodoridis, Y., Eds.; Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing; Springer: London, 2006; pp. 51–68 ISBN 9781852339777.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithms.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Tweaked Rats Can See Infrared Light Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Title 6--NAD Electronic Signature; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kessler, C. Elements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. A Proposal for Drawing a Clearer Picture of Public Pension Finances. New York Times 2011, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithms
ISSN (online)1999-4893
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Numerical Analysis
Theoretical Computer Science

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