How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rouault TA. (2009) Cell biology. An ancient gauge for iron. Science 326: 676–677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark JS, McLachlan JS. (2003) Stability of forest biodiversity. Nature 423: 635–638.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirichok Y, Krapivinsky G, Clapham DE. (2004) The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a highly selective ion channel. Nature 427: 360–364.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kuriyama K, Honma M, Yoshiike T, Kim Y. (2013) Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear. Sci Rep 3: 2227.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wallgren A, Wallgren B. (2014) Register-Based Statistics. In. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hwang Y-S. (2015) A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: New Directions in Research and Practice. In1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Richter S. (2010) Comments on Chapter 2 and 3. In F. Keereman & I. Szekely (eds), Five Years of an Enlarged EU: A Positive Sum Game, pp. 55–60. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
Davis J. (2016) 250,000-Year-Old Tool Discovery Suggests Ancient Humans Feasted On Rhinos And Ducks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000) Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs: Distribution of Fiscal Year 2000 Indian Reservation Roads Funds. In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brandom BM. (2009) Spiritual and emotional needs of young adults who are members of mainstream Protestant churches. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LINDA GREENHOUSE; Karen W. Arenson contributed reporting from New York for this article. (2006) U.S. WINS RULING OVER RECRUITING AT UNIVERSITIES. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rouault, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Clark and McLachlan, 2003; Rouault, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and McLachlan, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kirichok, Krapivinsky, and Clapham, 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kuriyama et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles