How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hublin J-J. (2013) Palaeontology: Free digital scans of human fossils. Nature 497: 183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovanoli S, Meyer U. (2013) Response to comment on ‘Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice’. Science 340: 811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sword GA, Lorch PD, Gwynne DT. (2005) Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature 433: 703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dahn RD, Davis MC, Pappano WN, Shubin NH. (2007) Sonic hedgehog function in chondrichthyan fins and the evolution of appendage patterning. Nature 445: 311–314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong ACM, Hui SC. (2006) Multimedia Engineering. In. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Monteiro J, Leuken R van (eds). (2010) Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation: 19th International Workshop, PATMOS 2009, Delft, The Netherlands, September 9-11, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. In, 5953 5953. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson JR. (2016) Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. In M. Toi, E. Winer, J. Benson & S. Klimberg (eds), Personalized Treatment of Breast Cancer, pp. 49–62. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2015) An extra second on the clock: why moving from astronomic to atomic time is a tricky business. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005) Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews. In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan A. (2017) The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. (2017) Its Star Aglow Again, Madison Square Park Is Ready for Memorial Day. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hublin, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hublin, 2013; Giovanoli and Meyer, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giovanoli and Meyer, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Sword, Lorch, and Gwynne, 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dahn et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles