How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKeon BJ. (2010) Applied physics. Controlling turbulence. Science 327: 1462–1463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korkusinski M, Hawrylak P. (2014) Quantum strain sensor with a topological insulator HgTe quantum dot. Sci Rep 4: 4903.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winkler W, Nahvi A, Breaker RR. (2002) Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature 419: 952–956.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka S, Umemori T, Hirai K, Muramatsu S, Kamimura Y, Araki H. (2007) CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Sld2 and Sld3 initiates DNA replication in budding yeast. Nature 445: 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo JB, Lin S-C. (2002) Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. In. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Atzmueller M, Hotho A, Strohmaier M, Chin A (eds). (2011) Analysis of Social Media and Ubiquitous Data: International Workshops MSM 2010, Toronto, Canada, June 13, 2010, and MUSE 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 20, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. In, 6904 6904. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tulgar T, Salamah M. (2006) DonorList: A New Distributed Channel Allocation Scheme for Cellular Networks. In P. Cuenca & L. Orozco-Barbosa (eds), Personal Wireless Communications: IFIP TC6 11th International Conference, PWC 2006, Albacete, Spain, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings, pp. 37–49. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. (2016) Tesla Unveils Solar Roof Tiles In Bid To Make Homes 100% Renewable. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012) Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion. In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe RM. (2009) Parental long-term care choices from the perspectives of their sandwich-generation adult children. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Nixon R, Liptak A. (2017) Justices Cancel Hearing on Travel Ban as Questions Linger on New Policy. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKeon, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (McKeon, 2010; Korkusinski and Hawrylak, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Korkusinski and Hawrylak, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Winkler, Nahvi, and Breaker, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles