How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. (2000) NASA pays the price of its dash for Mars. Nature 404: 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jang H-J, Cho W-J. (2014) Performance enhancement of capacitive-coupling dual-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor in ultra-thin-body. Sci Rep 4: 5284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaan HYK, Hackney DD, Kozielski F. (2011) The structure of the kinesin-1 motor-tail complex reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. Science 333: 883–885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lau NC, Seto AG, Kim J, et al. (2006) Characterization of the piRNA complex from rat testes. Science 313: 363–367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari SK. (2005) Variational Principles and the Numerical Solution of Scattering Problems. In. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Leal Filho W, Zint M (eds). (2016) The Contribution of Social Sciences to Sustainable Development at Universities. In1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Miatton M, Sarrechia I. (2016) Neurological and Psychosocial Development in Adolescence. In M. Schwerzmann, C. Thomet & P. Moons (eds), Congenital Heart Disease and Adolescence, pp. 61–82. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2014) Scientists Reveal Why Antarctica’s Mysterious Ghost Mountains Appear So Youthful. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005) Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Korean Version). In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fisher MD. (2014) The impact adult supervision, role models, and civic engagement has on the health status of adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C. (2015) A Milkman Returns, Emotional as Ever. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2000; Jang and Cho, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jang and Cho, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kaan, Hackney, and Kozielski, 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lau et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles