How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. (2012) What matters for science is who runs the country. Nature 488: 559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maxfield FR, Tabas I. (2005) Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. Nature 438: 612–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
McSween HY Jr, Taylor GJ, Wyatt MB. (2009) Elemental composition of the Martian crust. Science 324: 736–739.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gordon L, Abu-Farsakh H, Janotti A, Van de Walle CG. (2014) Hydrogen bonds in Al2O3 as dissipative two-level systems in superconducting qubits. Sci Rep 4: 7590.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigrist J-F. (2015) Fluid-Structure Interaction. In. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Maagdelijn E, Sluijs JJM, Verkoulen M (eds). (2011) Excelleren in de zorg. In. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera F, Ventura S, Bello R, et al. (2016) Instance-Based Classification Methods. In S. Ventura, R. Bello, C. Cornelis, A. Zafra, D. Sánchez-Tarragó & S. Vluymans (eds), Multiple Instance Learning: Foundations and Algorithms, pp. 67–98. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
Hale T. (2016) Scientists Discover Parrot Fossil In The Most Unlikely Of Places: Siberia. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995) Cassini Mission: Estimated Launch Costs for NASA’s Mission to Saturn. In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stadalis MD. (2015) Development of a Conceptual Model and Instrument for Sustaining Successful School Reculturing and Reform Efforts. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. (2005) Revolving Roles. New York Times 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Maxfield and Tabas, 2005; Macilwain, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maxfield and Tabas, 2005)
  • Three authors: (McSween, Taylor, and Wyatt, 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gordon et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles