How to format your references using the Alcohol and Alcoholism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Alcohol and Alcoholism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ranganathan R. (2003) Cell biology. A matter of life or death. Science 299: 1677–1679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sekido R, Lovell-Badge R. (2008) Sex determination involves synergistic action of SRY and SF1 on a specific Sox9 enhancer. Nature 453: 930–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belonoshko AB, Ahuja R, Johansson B. (2003) Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth’s inner core. Nature 424: 1032–1034.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Northen TR, Yanes O, Northen MT, et al. (2007) Clathrate nanostructures for mass spectrometry. Nature 449: 1033–1036.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rieth M, Krämer N. (2016) Hygiene in der Arzneimittelproduktion. In. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Giordano A, Macaluso M (eds). (2016) Gynecological Cancers: Genetic and Epigenetic Targets and Drug Development. In. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertelsen A. (2011) Irving Gottesman and the Schizophrenia Spectrum. In M.S. Ritsner (ed), Handbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Volume I: Conceptual Issues and Neurobiological Advances, pp. 115–125. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Alcohol and Alcoholism.

Blog post
Davis J. (2016) Record Breeding Season For The Enigmatic Kākāpō Parrot. IFLScience. IFLScience. Https:// [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009) Missouri River Navigation: Data on Commodity Shipments for Four States Served by the Missouri River and Two States Served by Both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. In. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bishop-Randol E. (2009) Outcomes of the Program of Assertive Community Treatment in Orange County, California. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. (2016) Prosecutors Set to Begin in Retrial of Patz Suspect. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ranganathan, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ranganathan, 2003; Sekido and Lovell-Badge, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sekido and Lovell-Badge, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Belonoshko, Ahuja, and Johansson, 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Northen et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAlcohol and Alcoholism
ISSN (print)0735-0414
ISSN (online)1464-3502

Other styles