How to format your references using the Aethiopica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lincoln, T. 2000. “Cardiac arrest can be less of a gamble,” Nature, 408/6810 (2000), 302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, R. L. and A. C. Rosenzweig 2005. “Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane,” Nature, 434/7030 (2005), 177–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depue, B. E., T. Curran, and M. T. Banich 2007. “Prefrontal regions orchestrate suppression of emotional memories via a two-phase process,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 317/5835 (2007), 215–219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lau, N. C., L. P. Lim, E. G. Weinstein, and D. P. Bartel 2001. “An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 294/5543 (2001), 858–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, I. 2012. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012 (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).
An edited book
Kolvekar, S. and H. Pilegaard, eds., 2016. Chest Wall Deformities and Corrective Procedures (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Gradusova, O. and E. Nesterina 2009. “The Current Status of Forensic Soil Examination in the Russian Federation,” in K. Ritz, L. Dawson, and D. Miller, eds., Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009), 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Plankton Help Control Clouds Over The World’s Most Remote Oceans IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988. Federal Research: Small Business Involvement in Federal Research and Development ( No. RCED-88-90BR) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang, T. T. 2017. Acoustic and Image Vehicle Classification System, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E. 2016. “Louise Rennison, 64, Young-Adult Author,” New York Times (March 5, 2016), D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopica
ISSN (print)1430-1938
ISSN (online)2194-4024

Other styles