How to format your references using the Aethiopica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston, K. J. 2012. “Ecology: the importance of being rare,” Nature, 487/7405 (2012), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maceyka, M. and S. Spiegel 2014. “Sphingolipid metabolites in inflammatory disease,” Nature, 510/7503 (2014), 58–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, X.-M., X. Zeng, and C. J. Lingle 2002. “Multiple regulatory sites in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels,” Nature, 418/6900 (2002), 880–884.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuan, Z., E. B. E. Becker, P. Merlo, T. Yamada, S. DiBacco, Y. Konishi, E. M. Schaefer, and A. Bonni 2008. “Activation of FOXO1 by Cdk1 in cycling cells and postmitotic neurons,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 319/5870 (2008), 1665–1668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burd, B. 2011. Java® For Dummies® (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
Carlet, C. and B. Sunar, eds., 2007. Arithmetic of Finite Fields: First International Workshop, WAIFI 2007, Madrid, Spain, June 21-22, 2007. Proceedings, 4547th, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Grefen, P., R. Eshuis, I. Duncan Stalker, and G. Kouvas 2010. “Architecture Aspect,” in N. Mehandjiev and P. Grefen, eds., Dynamic Business Process Formation for Instant Virtual Enterprises, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing (London: Springer, 2010), 49–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopica.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Evidence of Galactic Cannibalism Revealed IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994. Federal Motor Vehicles: Private and State Practices Can Improve Fleet Management ( No. GGD-95-18) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu, A. B. 2010. Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M. 2017. “You’re No. 1 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ... ),” New York Times, April 27, 2017, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopica
ISSN (print)1430-1938
ISSN (online)2194-4024

Other styles