How to format your references using the Aethiopica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D. 2000. “Canada tries to limit nanotech brain drain,” Nature, 408/6812 (2000), 623.
A journal article with 2 authors
LeRoy, B. J. and M. Yankowitz 2014. “Physics. Emergent complex states in bilayer graphene,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 345/6192 (2014), 31–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dragoi, V., C. Rivadulla, and M. Sur 2001. “Foci of orientation plasticity in visual cortex,” Nature, 411/6833 (2001), 80–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Orzel, C., A. K. Tuchman, M. L. Fenselau, M. Yasuda, and M. A. Kasevich 2001. “Squeezed states in a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 291/5512 (2001), 2386–2389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D., A. Fatu, and D. Souchet 2014. Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014).
An edited book
Rassias, T. M., ed., 2014. Handbook of Functional Equations: Functional Inequalities, 95th, Springer Optimization and Its Applications (New York, NY: Springer, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Aggarwal, C. C. 2009. “Trio A System for Data Uncertainty and Lineage,” in C. C. Aggarwal, ed., Managing and Mining Uncertain Data, Advances in Database Systems (Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009), 1–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopica.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Researchers Work Out How To Store Memories On A Chemical Reaction IFLScience (IFLScience, 2017) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973. Surface Effect Ships ( No. 093812) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ebrahimi, A. 2015. A recreational and vocational program for foster youth who reside in group homes: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stack, L. and J. Healy 2015. “They Shared Their Working Hours, and Their Dying Moments,” New York Times, December 4, 2015, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopica
ISSN (print)1430-1938
ISSN (online)2194-4024

Other styles