How to format your references using the Aethiopica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, I. L. 2012. “Ecology. The art of ecological modeling,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 337/6092 (2012), 306–307.
A journal article with 2 authors
May, M. and J. Davis 2006. “Preparing for the worst,” Nature, 443/7114 (2006), 907–908.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hagan, C. L., S. Kim, and D. Kahne 2010. “Reconstitution of outer membrane protein assembly from purified components,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 328/5980 (2010), 890–892.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rapp, M., S. Seppälä, E. Granseth, and G. von Heijne 2007. “Emulating membrane protein evolution by rational design,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 315/5816 (2007), 1282–1284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Markley, N. G. 2004. Principles of Differential Equations (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004).
An edited book
Kılıçman, A., H. M. Srivastava, M. Mursaleen, and Z. Abdul Majid, eds., 2016. Recent Advances in Mathematical Sciences: Selected Papers from ICREM7 2015 (Singapore: Springer, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Belleannée, C., O. Sallou, and J. Nicolas 2014. “Logol: Expressive Pattern Matching in Sequences. Application to Ribosomal Frameshift Modeling,” in M. Comin, L. Käll, E. Marchiori, A. Ngom, and J. Rajapakse, eds., Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: 9th IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, August 21-23, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014), 34–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopica.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Four New Spider Species Found In Southern Africa IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1975. Ways To Improve Management of Automated Data Processing Resources ( No. LCD-74-110) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck, R. E. 2012. Examining the relationship between self-initiated expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment among expatriate spouses within nonprofit organizations: A quantitative causal-comparative study, Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N. 2017. “Invisibly Black,” New York Times (January 13, 2017), BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopica
ISSN (print)1430-1938
ISSN (online)2194-4024

Other styles