How to format your references using the Aethiopica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aethiopica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan, R. 2015. “Earth science: Deadly combination,” Nature, 527/7577 (2015), 172–173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H. and J. Tromp 2013. “Mapping tectonic deformation in the crust and upper mantle beneath Europe and the North Atlantic Ocean,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 341/6148 (2013), 871–875.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dillon, R. J., C. T. Vennard, and A. K. Charnley 2000. “Exploitation of gut bacteria in the locust,” Nature, 403/6772 (2000), 851.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brown, S. A., J. Ripperger, S. Kadener, F. Fleury-Olela, F. Vilbois, M. Rosbash, and U. Schibler 2005. “PERIOD1-associated proteins modulate the negative limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 308/5722 (2005), 693–696.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hooper, J., A. Zalewski, and E. Watanabe 2013. Advanced Charting Techniques for High Probability Trading (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013).
An edited book
Ärlestig, H., C. Day, and O. Johansson, eds., 2016. A Decade of Research on School Principals: Cases from 24 Countries, 21st, Studies in Educational Leadership, 1st ed. 2016 (Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Kao, E. C.-C. and V.-W. Soo 2012. “Dialog Designs in Virtual Drama: Balancing Agency and Scripted Dialogs,” in M. Beer, C. Brom, F. Dignum, and V.-W. Soo, eds., Agents for Educational Games and Simulations: International Workshop, AEGS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2, 2011. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012), 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aethiopica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Sugary Drinks may Contribute to Almost 200,000 Deaths Worldwide each Year IFLScience (IFLScience, 2015) <>, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014. Freight Transportation: Developing National Strategy Would Benefit from Added Focus on Community Congestion Impacts ( No. GAO-14-740) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolakoski, M. 2013. The appeal to be heard and the trope of listening in classic film and African American literature, Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kantor, J., R. Abrams, and M. Haberman 2017. “A First Daughter Assembling a Vast Portfolio,” New York Times (May 2, 2017), A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleAethiopica
ISSN (print)1430-1938
ISSN (online)2194-4024

Other styles