How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. World view: Curing climate backlash. Nature. 2010;464(7285):28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sykora S, Becker KW. Heavy fermion properties of the Kondo Lattice model. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2691.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brisbin IL Jr, Austad S, Jacobson SK. Canine detectives: the nose knows-or does it? Science. 2000;290(5494):1093b.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cui L, Wang P, Chen X, Fang Y, Zhang Z, Sun M. Plasmon-driven dimerization via S-S chemical bond in an aqueous environment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pinoli J-C. Mathematical Foundations of Image Processing and Analysis 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Dyck VA, Hendrichs J, Robinson AS, eds. Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen JL, Colgan TD, Walton KL, Gregorevic P, Harrison CA. The TGF-β Signalling Network in Muscle Development, Adaptation and Disease. In: White J, Smythe G, eds. Growth Factors and Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle Development, Growth, Regeneration and Disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:97-131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery: X.

Blog post
Andrews R. Plants’ Chemical Warfare Mechanism Revealed For First Time. IFLScience. Published November 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Global Positioning System: Observations on Quarterly Reports from the Air Force. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker KD. Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. For Once, Soccer Gods Smile on Spanish. New York Times. July 4, 2010:SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery: X
ISSN (print)2590-1397

Other styles