How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nerenberg R. Microbiology. Breathing perchlorate. Science. 2013;340(6128):38-39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen TR, Gerken EA. Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves. Nature. 2005;433(7025):498-500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Priola SA, Chesebro B, Caughey B. Biomedicine. A view from the top--prion diseases from 10,000 feet. Science. 2003;300(5621):917-919.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xie W-J, Li M-X, Jiang Z-Q, Zhou W-X. Triadic motifs in the dependence networks of virtual societies. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5244.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner DJ. The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Milutinović V. Guide to DataFlow Supercomputing: Basic Concepts, Case Studies, and a Detailed Example. (Salom J, Trifunovic N, Giorgi R, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kwak D, Kiris CC. Artificial Compressibility Method. In: Kiris CC, ed. Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows. Scientific Computation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:41-77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery: X.

Blog post
Hale T. NASA Releases Mesmerizing Time-Lapse Of Three Hurricanes Seen From Space. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Developing and Using Questionnaires. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker MS. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of in vitro selected artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. From a Young Life of Crime to Comedy. New York Times. August 20, 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery: X
ISSN (print)2590-1397

Other styles