How to format your references using the World Neurosurgery: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for World Neurosurgery: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Klemperer W. Astronomy. The complex story of H2. Science. 2001;293(5531):815-816.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kodama R, Fast-Ignitor Consortium. Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition. Nature. 2002;418(6901):933-934.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Falkovich G, Fouxon A, Stepanov MG. Acceleration of rain initiation by cloud turbulence. Nature. 2002;419(6903):151-154.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mora CV, Davison M, Wild JM, Walker MM. Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon. Nature. 2004;432(7016):508-511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Daubert EJ. The Annual Campaign. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1.
Bos J. The Self-Marginalization of Wilhelm Stekel: Freudian Circles Inside and Out. (Groenendijk L, Sturm J, Roazen P, eds.). New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dixon I, Whittaker G. Streaming Your Media Collection from Windows Devices. In: Whittaker G, ed. Entertainment Apps on the Go with Windows 10: Music, Movies, and TV for PCs, Tablets, and Phones. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015:83-99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for World Neurosurgery: X.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Tiny 3D-Printed Microbots Could Be Used As A Drug Delivery System. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/tiny-3d-microbots-could-be-used-drug-delivery-system/. Published August 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Improvements Needed in Space Systems Acquisitions and Keys to Achieving Them. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ho L. Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G. On Final Day, Tears and Jeers. New York Times. September 29, 2011:B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorld Neurosurgery: X
ISSN (print)2590-1397
Scope

Other styles