How to format your references using the Work & Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Work & Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirschner, M. W. (2006). Obituary: Reinhart Heinrich (1946-2006). Nature, 444(7120), 700.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turchyn, A. V., & Schrag, D. P. (2004). Oxygen isotope constraints on the sulfur cycle over the past 10 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5666), 2004–2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe, J. M., Horowitz, T. S., & Kenner, N. M. (2005). Cognitive psychology: rare items often missed in visual searches. Nature, 435(7041), 439–440.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ouyang, M., Huang, J. L., Cheung, C. L., & Lieber, C. M. (2001). Atomically resolved single-walled carbon nanotube intramolecular junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5501), 97–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yaacoub, E. E., & Dawy, Z. (2012). Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Damiani, E. (2009). Open Source Systems Security Certification (C. A. Ardagna & N. El Ioini, Eds.). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Jayanti, P., & Petrovic, S. (2005). Efficiently Implementing LL/SC Objects Shared by an Unknown Number of Processes. In A. Pal, A. D. Kshemkalyani, R. Kumar, & A. Gupta (Eds.), Distributed Computing – IWDC 2005: 7th International Workshop, Kharagpur, India, December 27-30, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 45–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Work & Stress.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 12). Solar Roads Could Power An Entire Country. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Transportation Programs: Challenges Facing the Department of Transportation and Congress (GAO-09-435T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, M. D. (2009). Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, April 29). Hillary Clinton Rejects Delay in Health Plan. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirschner, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kirschner, 2006; Turchyn & Schrag, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turchyn & Schrag, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Wolfe et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ouyang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleWork & Stress
AbbreviationWork Stress
ISSN (print)0267-8373
ISSN (online)1464-5335
ScopeApplied Psychology

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