How to format your references using the Work & Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Work & Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dando, M. (2009). Biologists napping while work militarized. Nature, 460(7258), 950–951.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin, E., & Depinho, R. A. (2010). Linking functional decline of telomeres, mitochondria and stem cells during ageing. Nature, 464(7288), 520–528.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., Han, D., & Zhao, Y.-P. (2014). Kinetic behaviour of the cells touching substrate: the interfacial stiffness guides cell spreading. Scientific Reports, 4, 3910.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mitchell, T. M., Shinkareva, S. V., Carlson, A., Chang, K.-M., Malave, V. L., Mason, R. A., & Just, M. A. (2008). Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1191–1195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunt, R. R., & Cunic, J. D. (2000). Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ríos-Mercado, R. Z., & Ríos-Solís, Y. A. (Eds.). (2012). Just-in-Time Systems (Vol. 60). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Armstrong, E. J., & Rogers, J. (2013). Summary of MitraClip Clinical Data and Approach to Patient Selection. In T. Feldman, O. Franzen, R. Low, J. Rogers, & K. K. Yeo (Eds.), Atlas of Percutaneous Edge-to-Edge Mitral Valve Repair (pp. 53–61). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Work & Stress.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 8). Faster-Than-Light Travel: Are We There Yet? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working? (No. PAD-77-6). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boothe, C. S. (2012). The effects of prototype medium on the user’s overall perception of usability and ability to detect usability flaws (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, September 7). Next Act for an Editor Silver of Tongue (and Hair). New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dando, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dando, 2009; Sahin & Depinho, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sahin & Depinho, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Li, Han, & Zhao, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mitchell et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWork & Stress
AbbreviationWork Stress
ISSN (print)0267-8373
ISSN (online)1464-5335
ScopeApplied Psychology

Other styles