How to format your references using the Work & Stress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Work & Stress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mann, R. S. (2014). Neuroscience. The Michael Jackson fly. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6179), 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kovács, I. A., & Barabási, A.-L. (2015). Network science: Destruction perfected. Nature, 524(7563), 38–39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhowmick, N. A., Neilson, E. G., & Moses, H. L. (2004). Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression. Nature, 432(7015), 332–337.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wielicki, B. A., Wong, T., Loeb, N., Minnis, P., Priestley, K., & Kandel, R. (2005). Changes in Earth’s albedo measured by satellite. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723), 825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denny, H. R., & Butterworth, S. J. (2008). A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery. Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Bolikowski, Ł., Casarosa, V., Goodale, P., Houssos, N., Manghi, P., & Schirrwagen, J. (Eds.). (2014). Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries -- TPDL 2013 Selected Workshops: LCPD 2013, SUEDL 2013, DataCur 2013, Held in Valletta, Malta, September 22-26, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 416). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Krishnaswamy, S., Markov, I. L., & Hayes, J. P. (2013). Testing Logic Circuits for Probabilistic Faults. In I. L. Markov & J. P. Hayes (Eds.), Design, Analysis and Test of Logic Circuits Under Uncertainty (pp. 53–61). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Work & Stress.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 2). Stressed Out Snake Eats Itself. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). FTS 2000 Recompetition: Opportunity Exists for Better Prices (T-IMTEC-92-1). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cervantes, I. (2013). Flexural retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, May 28). Borrowing to Replenish Depleted Pensions. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mann, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kovács & Barabási, 2015; Mann, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kovács & Barabási, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bhowmick et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wielicki et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWork & Stress
AbbreviationWork Stress
ISSN (print)0267-8373
ISSN (online)1464-5335
ScopeApplied Psychology

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