How to format your references using the Wilderness & Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burke B. Cell biology. Nuclear pore complex models gel. Science. 2006;314(5800):766-767.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knohl A, Veldkamp E. Global change: indirect feedbacks to rising CO2. Nature. 2011;475(7355):177-178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehebauer M, Hayward P, Arias AM. Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science. 2006;314(5804):1414-1415.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arneth A, Unger N, Kulmala M, Andreae MO. Atmospheric science. Clean the air, heat the planet? Science. 2009;326(5953):672-673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon A, Itmi M. New Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Wang W, Li Y, Duan Z, Yan L, Li H, Yang X, eds. Integration and Innovation Orient to E-Society Volume 1: Seventh IFIP International Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E2007), October 10–12, Wuhan, China. Vol 251. Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Lyubchenko YL. AFM Visualization of Protein–DNA Interactions. In: Oberhauser AF, ed. Single-Molecule Studies of Proteins. Springer; 2013:97-117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Shocking Footage Shows A Digger Crushing A Tiger To Death. IFLScience. Published March 20, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Major Management Issues Facing DOD’s Development and Fielding Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall KN. Facilitating physically active identity development in older women. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sheehan N. David and Goliath in Vietnam. New York Times. May 26, 2017:SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWilderness & Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationWilderness Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)1080-6032
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles