How to format your references using the Wilderness & Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Robinson K. Personal finance. So what should you invest in? Science. 2006;313(5792):1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ogata H, Claverie J-M. Microbiology. How to infect a Mimivirus. Science. 2008;321(5894):1305-1306.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Contreras M, Ceric F, Torrealba F. Inactivation of the interoceptive insula disrupts drug craving and malaise induced by lithium. Science. 2007;318(5850):655-658.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dubnau J, Grady L, Kitamoto T, Tully T. Disruption of neurotransmission in Drosophila mushroom body blocks retrieval but not acquisition of memory. Nature. 2001;411(6836):476-480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Warren AEA, Lerner RM, Phelps E. Thriving and Spirituality Among Youth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Wu AM, ed. The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates-3. Vol 705. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kehl S. Morphology, Anatomy, and Physiological Aspects of Dytiscids. In: Yee DA, ed. Ecology, Systematics, and the Natural History of Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014:173-198.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. How Do Our Brains Reconstruct The Visual World? IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Analysis of Cost Estimates for the Space Shuttle and Two Alternate Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Berezin S. Catechols as membrane anion transporters. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Meacham J. The Man to Blame for Our Culture of Fame. New York Times. April 26, 2017:BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWilderness & Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationWilderness Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)1080-6032
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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