How to format your references using the Wilderness & Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kimble HJ. The quantum internet. Nature. 2008;453(7198):1023-1030.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhee HS, Pugh BF. Genome-wide structure and organization of eukaryotic pre-initiation complexes. Nature. 2012;483(7389):295-301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts DGAL, Schmidt M, Lekkerkerker HNW. Direct visual observation of thermal capillary waves. Science. 2004;304(5672):847-850.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nam KT, Kim D-W, Yoo PJ, et al. Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes. Science. 2006;312(5775):885-888.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle D. Life in the Financial Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Ehrentraut D, Meissner E, Bockowski M, eds. Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth. Vol 133. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Knopp T, Buzug TM. Prior to Reconstruction – The System Function. In: Buzug TM, ed. Magnetic Particle Imaging: An Introduction to Imaging Principles and Scanner Instrumentation. Springer; 2012:97-125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wilderness & Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Herpes Infected Our Ancestors Before They Were Human. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Travel: Passenger Aircraft Services Annually Cost Taxpayers Millions More Than Commercial Airlines. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClurg AD. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Third-Party Candidate; Perot’s Vision: Consensus by Computer. New York Times. June 6, 1992:11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWilderness & Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationWilderness Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)1080-6032
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles