How to format your references using the Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Gammon, Drug discovery: Leaving no stone unturned, Nature. 509 (2014) S10-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.A. Godley, A. Mondragón, Molecular biology. Preference by exclusion, Science. 331 (2011) 1017–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.C.T. Pham, H.S. Kim, K.B. Yoon, Growth of uniformly oriented silica MFI and BEA zeolite films on substrates, Science. 334 (2011) 1533–1538.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Jirawatnotai, Y. Hu, W. Michowski, J.E. Elias, L. Becks, F. Bienvenu, A. Zagozdzon, T. Goswami, Y.E. Wang, A.B. Clark, T.A. Kunkel, T. van Harn, B. Xia, M. Correll, J. Quackenbush, D.M. Livingston, S.P. Gygi, P. Sicinski, A function for cyclin D1 in DNA repair uncovered by protein interactome analyses in human cancers, Nature. 474 (2011) 230–234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Blair, J.M. Regenstein, Genetic Modification and Food Quality, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
F.S. de Boer, M.M. Bonsangue, S. Graf, W.-P. de Roever, eds., Formal Methods for Components and Objects: 5th International Symposium, FMCO 2006, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, November 7-10, 2006, Revised Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Wright, C. Erkes, Implementing Services, in: C. Erkes (Ed.), Pro SharePoint 2010 Governance, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2012: pp. 33–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Greenhouse Gases Melted Ice Age Glaciers, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Strategic Planning Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs across Multiple Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I. Cervantes, Flexural retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures using Green Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer plates, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda Greenhouse; Karen, Gary Gately contributed reporting for this article, Supreme Court Roundup; BURDEN OF PROOF NOW ON PARENTS IN SCHOOL CASES, New York Times. (2005) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web
AbbreviationWeb Semant.
ISSN (print)1570-8268
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

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