How to format your references using the Water Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sterner, T. (2015) Economics: Higher costs of climate change. Nature, 527(7577), 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Könneker, C. and Lugger, B. (2013) History of science. Public Science 2.0--back to the future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6154), 49–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shankar, N., Baghdayan, A. S., and Gilmore, M. S. (2002) Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Nature, 417(6890), 746–750.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Azzalin, C. M., Reichenbach, P., Khoriauli, L., Giulotto, E., and Lingner, J. (2007) Telomeric repeat containing RNA and RNA surveillance factors at mammalian chromosome ends. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 798–801.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2008) Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Safety, Security, and Risk Management, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Takayasu, M., Watanabe, T., and Takayasu, H. (eds.) (2010) Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis, Tokyo, Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, S., Thompson, D., and Hansen, J. K. (2013) “Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr)” in L. E. Pâques (ed.), Forest Tree Breeding in Europe: Current State-of-the-Art and Perspectives. Managing Forest Ecosystems. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 177–227.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science & Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016) Elon Musk Unveils The Ridiculously Big Tesla Gigfactory. IFLScience. [online] (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) District of Columbia Public Schools: Status of Fiscal Year 1998 Roof Projects, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R. (2010) The California State University education doctorate: Public policy for the public good.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016) Revisiting an Effort to Expose the Evils of ‘Mein Kampf.’ New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sterner, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Sterner, 2015; Könneker and Lugger, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Könneker and Lugger, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Azzalin, Reichenbach, et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science & Technology
AbbreviationWater Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0273-1223
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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