How to format your references using the Water Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wingreen, N. S. (2004) Physics. Quantum many-body effects in a single-electron transistor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1258–1259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannon, G. J. and Rossi, J. J. (2004) Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference. Nature, 431(7006), 371–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grzybowski, B. A., Stone, H. A., and Whitesides, G. M. (2000) Dynamic self-assembly of magnetized, millimetre-sized objects rotating at a liquid-air interface. Nature, 405(6790), 1033–1036.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Santagata, S., Boggon, T. J., Baird, C. L., Gomez, C. A., Zhao, J., Shan, W. S., Myszka, D. G., and Shapiro, L. (2001) G-protein signaling through tubby proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2041–2050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brunet, R. (2013) Sustainable Geography, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Freksa, C., Newcombe, N. S., Gärdenfors, P., and Wölfl, S. (eds.) (2008) Spatial Cognition VI. Learning, Reasoning, and Talking about Space: International Conference Spatial Cognition 2008, Freiburg, Germany, September 15-19, 2008. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen, H. P. and Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, T. (2013) “Who, How, and What? Quality of Life and Psychosocial Cancer Research” in N. Warren and L. Manderson (eds.), Reframing Disability and Quality of Life: A Global Perspective. Social Indicators Research Series. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science & Technology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016) Infrared Imaging Shows Jupiter’s Gas Streaks In A New Light. IFLScience. [online] (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Hourly Fees Paid by Various Federal Agencies to Private Attorneys for Legal Services, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, C. (2010) A quantitative study of retirement knowledge among Spring 2009 Arizona high school graduates.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woideck, G. (2016) Buddha Provides Tap Shoes. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wingreen, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Wingreen, 2004; Hannon and Rossi, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannon and Rossi, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Santagata, Boggon, et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science & Technology
AbbreviationWater Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0273-1223
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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