How to format your references using the Water Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold, M. F. (2000) The smallest fullerene. Nature, 407(6800), 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwab, M. E. and Buchli, A. D. (2012) Drug research: plug the real brain drain. Nature, 483(7389), 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., O’Neill, B. C., and Scherbov, S. (2003) Demographics. Europe’s population at a turning point. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5615), 1991–1992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, H.-R., Zhang, Y., Ozdamar, B., Ogunjimi, A. A., Alexandrova, E., Thomsen, G. H., and Wrana, J. L. (2003) Regulation of cell polarity and protrusion formation by targeting RhoA for degradation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5651), 1775–1779.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, J. Y. B. (2005) Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xu, D., Du, Donglei, and Du, Dingzhu (eds.) (2015) Computing and Combinatorics: 21st International Conference, COCOON 2015, Beijing, China, August 4-6, 2015, Proceedings, Cham, Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rai, R. and Regan, L. (2012) “Pregnancy Morbidity Associated with Hereditary and Acquired Thrombophilias: Recurrent Miscarriage” in H. Cohen and P. O’Brien (eds.), Disorders of Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Pregnancy: A Guide to Management. London, Springer, 71–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science & Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015) How Much Water Would It Take To Extinguish The Sun? IFLScience. [online] (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects, Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monforton, C. (2008) Evaluation of the impact of a mandatory safety training regulation on occupational injury and fatality rates among U.S. stone, sand and gravel miners.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2013) Bolshoi’s Plans for New York Remain Unclear. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jarrold, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jarrold, 2000; Schwab and Buchli, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwab and Buchli, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang, Zhang, et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science & Technology
AbbreviationWater Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0273-1223
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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