How to format your references using the Water, Air, & Soil Pollution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wootton, J. T. (2001). Local interactions predict large-scale pattern in empirically derived cellular automata. Nature, 413(6858), 841–844.
A journal article with 2 authors
y Arcas, B. A., & Fairhall, A. (2001). Archaeology of type. Nature, 411(6841), 997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, C. P., Steinberger, B., & Torsvik, T. H. (2013). Stability of active mantle upwelling revealed by net characteristics of plate tectonics. Nature, 498(7455), 479–482.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mummery-Widmer, J. L., Yamazaki, M., Stoeger, T., Novatchkova, M., Bhalerao, S., Chen, D., et al. (2009). Genome-wide analysis of Notch signalling in Drosophila by transgenic RNAi. Nature, 458(7241), 987–992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer, P. D. (2005). Mathematical Journeys. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stanković, S. (2016). Multimedia Signals and Systems: Basic and Advanced Algorithms for Signal Processing. (I. Orović & E. Sejdić, Eds.) (2nd ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sha, S., Jun, L., Qinghua, Z., & Wei, Z. (2011). Automatic Chinese Topic Term Spelling Correction in Online Pinyin Input. In J. J. Park, H. Jin, X. Liao, & R. Zheng (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-centric Computing 2011 and Embedded and Multimedia Computing 2011: HumanCom & EMC 2011 (pp. 23–36). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water, Air, & Soil Pollution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 24). Informed Consent For Stem Cell Research: Why It Matters And What You Should Know. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Airport Financing: Projects Eligible for Federal Support That May Go Unfunded (No. RCED-98-165R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel, C. C. (2008). Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015, May 10). Seven Museums, Each Offering a Deadly Sin. New York Times, p. WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wootton 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wootton 2001; y Arcas and Fairhall 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (y Arcas and Fairhall 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mummery-Widmer et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater, Air, & Soil Pollution
AbbreviationWater Air Soil Pollut.
ISSN (print)0049-6979
ISSN (online)1573-2932
ScopeEcological Modelling
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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