How to format your references using the Water, Air, & Soil Pollution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conrad, P. G. (2014). Planetary science. Scratching the surface of martian habitability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6215), 1288–1289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kasahara, T., & Kato, T. (2003). Nutritional biochemistry: A new redox-cofactor vitamin for mammals. Nature, 422(6934), 832.
A journal article with 3 authors
Templeton, C. N., Greene, E., & Davis, K. (2005). Allometry of alarm calls: black-capped chickadees encode information about predator size. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5730), 1934–1937.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Strohmaier, H., Spruck, C. H., Kaiser, P., Won, K. A., Sangfelt, O., & Reed, S. I. (2001). Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Nature, 413(6853), 316–322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards, S. A., & Hollerton, J. C. (2010). Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gatignon, H. (2016). Making Innovation Last: Volume 1: Sustainable Strategies for Long Term Growth. (D. Gotteland & C. Haon, Eds.). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Winter, S. S., & Taube, J. S. (2014). Head Direction Cells: From Generation to Integration. In D. Derdikman & J. J. Knierim (Eds.), Space,Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation (pp. 83–106). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water, Air, & Soil Pollution.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 23). Meet The Animals Who Live INSIDE Volcanoes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). ADP Procurements: GSA Needs to Improve Its Review Process to Enhance Its ADP Oversight (No. IMTEC-92-7). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villagomez, G. C. (2017). Helping Foster Parents and Kinship Caregivers Support High School Graduation for Children in Their Care: A Self-Instructional Workbook (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marshall, L. (2011, October 16). From Granny’s Store to G.M. New York Times, p. BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conrad 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Conrad 2014; Kasahara and Kato 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kasahara and Kato 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Strohmaier et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater, Air, & Soil Pollution
AbbreviationWater Air Soil Pollut.
ISSN (print)0049-6979
ISSN (online)1573-2932
ScopeEcological Modelling
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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