How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations (Voluntas). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchen, L. (2011). Cancer: Missing the mark. Nature, 471(7339), 428–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rabinowitz, J. D., & White, E. (2010). Autophagy and metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6009), 1344–1348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic, J., Coontz, R., & Osborne, I. (2011). Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6026), 189.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Subarya, C., Chlieh, M., Prawirodirdjo, L., Avouac, J.-P., Bock, Y., Sieh, K., et al. (2006). Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Nature, 440(7080), 46–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crighton, D. A., & Towl, G. J. (2009). Psychology in Prisons. Oxford, UK: BPS Blackwell.
An edited book
Scarpas, A., Kringos, N., Al-Qadi, I., & A., L. (Eds.). (2012). 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mechanisms, Modeling, Testing, Detection and Prevention Case Histories (Vol. 4). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Pfeiffer, H. (2015). Hydration Forces Between Lipid Bilayers: A Theoretical Overview and a Look on Methods Exploring Dehydration. In E. A. Disalvo (Ed.), Membrane Hydration: The Role of Water in the Structure and Function of Biological Membranes (pp. 69–104). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 2). The Oceans Could Soon Not Have Enough Oxygen To Support Marine Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). NASA Budgets: Gap Between Funding Requirements and Projected Budgets Has Been Reopened (No. NSIAD-95-155BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila, R. (2017). Support and Resources for Homeless Families: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, September 24). Battle Lines on Broadway: Little Slips vs. Big Type. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Austin 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Reitz 2007; Shatz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rabinowitz and White 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

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