How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Northup, T. (2015). Quantum physics: Squeezed ions in two places at once. Nature, 521(7552), 295–296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marsh, M., & van Meer, G. (2008). Cell biology. No ESCRTs for exosomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5867), 1191–1192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Larsen, R. E., Glover, W. J., & Schwartz, B. J. (2010). Does the hydrated electron occupy a cavity? Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 65–69.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cash, H. L., Whitham, C. V., Behrendt, C. L., & Hooper, L. V. (2006). Symbiotic bacteria direct expression of an intestinal bactericidal lectin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5790), 1126–1130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky, S. M. (2006). The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ross, A. A. (2006). Handbook of Multibiometrics. (A. K. Jain & K. Nandakumar, Eds.) (Vol. 6). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Trotter, G. (2012). Why the West Spurns Medical Rituals. In D. Solomon, R. Fan, & P.-C. Lo (Eds.), Ritual and the Moral Life: Reclaiming the Tradition (pp. 75–86). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, September 23). The Amount Of Sex You Have May Determine How Vulnerable You Are To Drug Addiction. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Need for Full Cost Reporting and Participating Agreement on SEASAT-A Project (No. PSAD-78-76). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Metcalfe, A. C. (2017). Using Evolution as a Context for Teaching the Nature of Science to Diverse Student Populations: A High School Unit of Curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016, August 24). Everyday Minutia, and Where It Leads. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Northup 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Marsh and van Meer 2008; Northup 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marsh and van Meer 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Cash et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

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