How to format your references using the VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jha, A. (2000). Britain turns its attention to nanotech transfer. Nature, 408(6812), 620–621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feng, W., & Takemoto, K. (2014). Heterogeneity in ecological mutualistic networks dominantly determines community stability. Scientific reports, 4, 5912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kutnjak, Z., Petzelt, J., & Blinc, R. (2006). The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors as a critical phenomenon. Nature, 441(7096), 956–959.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pocai, A., Lam, T. K. T., Gutierrez-Juarez, R., Obici, S., Schwartz, G. J., Bryan, J., et al. (2005). Hypothalamic K(ATP) channels control hepatic glucose production. Nature, 434(7036), 1026–1031.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu, S. (2014). Transport and Coherent Structures in Wall Turbulence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bliesemann de Guevara, B. (Ed.). (2016). Myth and Narrative in International Politics: Interpretive Approaches to the Study of IR. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Schöll, E., Hövel, P., Flunkert, V., & Dahlem, M. A. (2010). Time-Delayed Feedback Control: From Simple Models to Lasers and Neural Systems. In F. M. Atay (Ed.), Complex Time-Delay Systems: Theory and Applications (pp. 85–150). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 12). River Dolphin Sonar Is Well-Suited For Life In The Busy Amazon. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development (No. T-RCED-98-129). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, C. N. (2015). The influence of gardens on resilience in older adults living in a continuing care community (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2016, August 24). Pandora Seeks a Way Out of the Internet Radio Doldrums. Cue Questlove. New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jha 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Feng and Takemoto 2014; Jha 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feng and Takemoto 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pocai et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleVOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations
ISSN (print)0957-8765
ISSN (online)1573-7888
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management
Sociology and Political Science
Public Administration

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