How to format your references using the Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis R. Chemistry in context. Nature. 2007 Mar 22;446:464–465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haney CH, Ausubel FM. MICROBIOME. Plant microbiome blueprints. Science. 2015 Aug 21;349:788–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich T, Allen RL, Wyllie AH. Defying death after DNA damage. Nature. 2000 Oct 12;407:777–783.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Collins GA, Lipford JR, Deshaies RJ, Tansey WP. Gal4 turnover and transcription activation. Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461:E7; discussion E8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michaud T. Innovation, Between Science and Science Fiction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Campion J, Rousseaux X, editors. Policing New Risks in Modern European History. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Grancharova A, Johansen TA. Explicit NMPC via Approximate mp-NLP. In: Johansen TA (ed): Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012;87–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

Blog post
Hale T. What Caused China’s ‘Floating City’ In The Sky? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: States’ Collection and Use of Funds for Wireless Enhanced 911 Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Mar. Report No.: GAO-06-338.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Neil S. A turn from the worst: Leadership influences on the successful turnaround of a high-poverty school [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins L. Despite ‘Sanctuary City’ Policy, Mayor Says New York Complies With U.S. Law. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
AbbreviationVet. Radiol. Ultrasound
ISSN (print)1058-8183
ISSN (online)1740-8261
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

Other styles