How to format your references using the Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill LAJ. Immunology. Sensing the dark side of DNA. Science. 2013 Feb 15;339:763–764.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vähärautio A, Taipale J. Cancer. Cancer by super-enhancer. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346:1291–1292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barber VA, Juday GP, Finney BP. Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature. 2000 Jun 8;405:668–673.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
García-Hernández DA, García-Lario P, Plez B, D’Antona F, Manchado A, Trigo-Rodríguez JM. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars. Science. 2006 Dec 15;314:1751–1754.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford R. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Lamiroy B, Ogier J-M, editors. Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges: 10th International Workshop, GREC 2013, Bethlehem, PA, USA, August 20-21, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Poola I. Estrogen Receptors in Breast Tumors of African American Patients. In: Fuqua SAW (ed): Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009;1–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

Blog post
Hale T. You Can Now Send Secret Encrypted Messages On Facebook Messenger [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Longer Combination Vehicles: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED-94-306.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH. Marx Generator Charged via Biperiodic Resonant Cascaded Transformers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cordes K. Mountaineering’s Greatest Climb Unravels. New York Times. 2015 Feb 22;SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
AbbreviationVet. Radiol. Ultrasound
ISSN (print)1058-8183
ISSN (online)1740-8261
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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