How to format your references using the Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clark AG. Genetics: The vital Y chromosome. Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508:463–465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michalakis Y, Roze D. Evolution. Epistasis in RNA viruses. Science. 2004 Nov 26;306:1492–1493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender PA, Kee J-M, Warrington JM. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science. 2008 May 2;320:649–652.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shan L, Molberg Ø, Parrot I, et al. Structural basis for gluten intolerance in celiac sprue. Science. 2002 Sep 27;297:2275–2279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar SS, Parameshwaran N, Phoha VV, Balakrishnan N, Okoye CD. Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Liberty J. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ. Betts P (ed): Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramírez C, García H, Serna L, León N. CAI for Minimizing Movement of Solar Tracking Concentrators. In: Cavallucci D, Guio R de, Cascini G (eds): Building Innovation Pipelines through Computer-Aided Innovation: 4th IFIP WG 54 Working Conference, CAI 2011, Strasbourg, France, June 30 – July 1, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011;43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

Blog post
Fang J. This Gene Gave Mosquitoes The Taste For Human Blood [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Safety: NHTSA Should Resume Its Support of State Periodic Inspection Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jul. Report No.: RCED-90-175.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan GC. Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Saturday Bustle. New York Times. 2008 Sep 14;NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
AbbreviationVet. Radiol. Ultrasound
ISSN (print)1058-8183
ISSN (online)1740-8261
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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