How to format your references using the Veterinary Parasitology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Parasitology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearce, J.M., 2012. Physics: Make nanotechnology research open-source. Nature 491, 519–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Danielson, J.Å.H., Frommer, W.B., 2013. Plant science. Jack of all trades, master of flowering. Science 339, 659–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard, C.L., Boneka, F., Full, R.J., 2005. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. Science 307, 1927.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Büttner, T.F.S., Kabakova, I.V., Hudson, D.D., Pant, R., Poulton, C.G., Judge, A.C., Eggleton, B.J., 2014. Phase-locking and pulse generation in multi-frequency brillouin oscillator via four wave mixing. Sci. Rep. 4, 5032.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belmont, D.P., 2011. Managing Hedge Fund Risk and Financing. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 1 Fusionopolis Walk, #07-01, Solaris South Tower, Singapore 138628.
An edited book
Lamour, R., 2013. Differential-Algebraic Equations: A Projector Based Analysis, Differential-Algebraic Equations Forum. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cesare, S., Xiang, Y., 2012. Formal Methods of Program Analysis, in: Xiang, Y. (Ed.), Software Similarity and Classification, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, London, pp. 29–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Parasitology: X.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Huge Gas Stream 2.6 Million Light-Years Across Spotted [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Attrition of Scientists at Three Regulatory Agencies (No. PAD-83-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S.J., 2006. The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenberg, J., 2016. The Long, Long Road to Building ‘Fences.’ New York Times AR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearce, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Danielson and Frommer, 2013; Pearce, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Danielson and Frommer, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Büttner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Parasitology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1389

Other styles