How to format your references using the Veterinary Parasitology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Parasitology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catania, K., 2014. The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel. Science 346, 1231–1234.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, C.M., Tilman, D., 2008. Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands. Nature 451, 712–715.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, A., Zadafiya, P., Mahalakshmi, R., 2014. Differential contribution of tryptophans to the folding and stability of the attachment invasion locus transmembrane β-barrel from Yersinia pestis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6508.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Y., Araki, S., Wu, J., Teramoto, T., Chang, Y.-F., Nakano, M., Abdelfattah, A.S., Fujiwara, M., Ishihara, T., Nagai, T., Campbell, R.E., 2011. An expanded palette of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. Science 333, 1888–1891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F., 2014. Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 3. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Leskow, J., Punzo, L.F., Anyul, M.P. (Eds.), 2005. New Tools of Economic Dynamics, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
DeHaven, W.I., Conner, D.P., 2014. The Effects of Food on Drug Bioavailability and Bioequivalence, in: Yu, L.X., Li, B.V. (Eds.), FDA Bioequivalence Standards, AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 95–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Parasitology: X.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. 5 Of The Most Earth-Like Planets We’ve Found [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Information Technology: IRS Needs to Improve the Reliability and Transparency of Reported Investment Information (No. GAO-14-298). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alvarez, D.J., 2010. Piloted simulation study comparing classical and robust flight control design methods (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B., 2015. Despite Recalls, G.M. Pays Workers Big Bonus. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catania, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Catania, 2014; Clark and Tilman, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and Tilman, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Parasitology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1389

Other styles