How to format your references using the Urban Research & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Research & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goto, Hayato. 2014. “Step-by-Step Magic State Encoding for Efficient Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7501.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solanki, Sami K., and Natalie A. Krivova. 2011. “Astronomy. Analyzing Solar Cycles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6058): 916–917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto, Hiroshi, Yumiko Watanabe, and Kazumasa Kumazawa. 2004. “Evidence from Massive Siderite Beds for a CO2-Rich Atmosphere before Approximately 1.8 Billion Years Ago.” Nature 429 (6990): 395–399.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Anderson, Jason S., Robert R. Reisz, Diane Scott, Nadia B. Fröbisch, and Stuart S. Sumida. 2008. “A Stem Batrachian from the Early Permian of Texas and the Origin of Frogs and Salamanders.” Nature 453 (7194): 515–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snell, Richard S., and Michael A. Lemp. 1997. Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd,.
An edited book
Buttazzo, Giorgio. 2005. Soft Real-Time Systems: Predictability vs. Efficiency. Edited by Giuseppe Lipari, Luca Abeni, and Marco Caccamo. Series in Computer Science. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoijtink, Herbert, Rafaele Huntjens, Albert Reijntjes, Rebecca Kuiper, and Paul A. Boelen. 2008. “An Evaluation of Bayesian Inequality Constrained Analysis of Variance.” In Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Hypotheses, edited by Herbert Hoijtink, Irene Klugkist, and Paul A. Boelen, 85–108. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Research & Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “China To Build New National Park 60% Bigger Than Yellowstone To Save The Siberian Tiger.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. NASA Workforce: Responses to Follow-up Questions Regarding the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Use of Term Appointments. GAO-09-356R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah, Rehana Anzai. 2010. “Who Am I? A Biracial and Interfaith Woman’s Perspective: A Personal Narrative.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kristof, Nicholas D. 2011. “Tussling Over Jesus.” New York Times, January 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goto 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Goto 2014; Solanki and Krivova 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solanki and Krivova 2011)
  • Three authors: (Ohmoto, Watanabe, and Kumazawa 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Anderson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Research & Practice
AbbreviationUrban Res. Pract.
ISSN (print)1753-5069
ISSN (online)1753-5077
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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