How to format your references using the Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Showalter MR. Planetary science. Saturn’s strangest ring becomes curiouser and curiouser. Science. 2005 Nov 25;310(5752):1287–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards TA, Cavalier-Smith T. Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes. Nature. 2005 Aug 25;436(7054):1113–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
King N, Hittinger CT, Carroll SB. Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science. 2003 Jul 18;301(5631):361–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Levy JS, Fountain AG, Dickson JL, Head JW, Okal M, Marchant DR, et al. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malcolm D. The British and Irish Short Story Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Gaggioli A. Networked Flow: Towards an Understanding of Creative Networks. Riva G, Milani L, Mazzoni E, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. VI, 117 p. 19 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Education).
A chapter in an edited book
Calin O, Chang D-C, Tie J. Hermite Operator on the Heisenberg Group. In: Sabadini I, Struppa DC, Walnut DF, editors. Harmonic Analysis, Signal Processing, and Complexity: Festschrift in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Carlos A Berenstein. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2005. p. 37–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Stem Cell Line Developed With Big Potential [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Management Systems: DHS Faces Challenges to Successfully Consolidate Its Existing Disparate Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Oct. Report No.: GAO-10-210T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter VP. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B. All Kidding Aside, Alderson and Mets Sign Tebow to Minor League Deal. New York Times. 2016 Sep 9;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleUndersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal
AbbreviationUndersea Hyperb. Med.
ISSN (print)1066-2936
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles