How to format your references using the Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNamara BR. Astronomy. Feedback on galaxy formation. Science. 2013 Sep 6;341(6150):1073–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conley ME, Fruman DA. Genetics. Can cancer drugs treat immunodeficiency? Science. 2013 Nov 15;342(6160):814–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baer B, Armitage SAO, Boomsma JJ. Sperm storage induces an immunity cost in ants. Nature. 2006 Jun 15;441(7095):872–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Merckx T, Souffreau C, Kaiser A, Baardsen LF, Backeljau T, Bonte D, et al. Body-size shifts in aquatic and terrestrial urban communities. Nature. 2018 Jun;558(7708):113–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Costa PJ. Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Gherardelli F, editor. Complex Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. 463 p. 3 illus. (C.I.M.E. Summer Schools; vol. 62).
A chapter in an edited book
Fine J-D, Diem A. Living with EB. In: Fine J-D, Hintner H, editors. Life with Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB): Etiology, Diagnosis, Multidisciplinary Care and Therapy. Vienna: Springer; 2009. p. 309–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Seven Dwarf Galaxies Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Indoor Pollution: Status of Federal Research Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Aug. Report No.: RCED-99-254.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao X. Exfoliation Corrosion Kinetics of High Strength Aluminum Alloys [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM. Satisfying the Sweet (and Savory) Tooth. New York Times. 2016 Aug 28;LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleUndersea & Hyperbaric Medicine Journal
AbbreviationUndersea Hyperb. Med.
ISSN (print)1066-2936
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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