How to format your references using the Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan WD. MATERIALS SCIENCE. The mechanism of crystal deformation. Science. 2015;349(6252):1059-1060.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanno K-I, Willcox G. How fast was wild wheat domesticated? Science. 2006;311(5769):1886.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp M, Rand AS, Ryan MJ. Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature. 2006;441(7089):38.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kroutvar M, Ducommun Y, Heiss D, Bichler M, Schuh D, Abstreiter G, Finley JJ. Optically programmable electron spin memory using semiconductor quantum dots. Nature. 2004;432(7013):81-84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daries H. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,; 2012.
An edited book
Geary TG, Maule AG, eds. Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control. Vol 692. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Prauzek M, Hlavica J, Michalikova M. Automatic Fuzzy Classification System for Metabolic Types Detection. In: Abraham A, Jiang XH, Snášel V, Pan J-S, eds. Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications: Proceedings of the Second Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, ECC 2015. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:49-59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Millions Of Spiders Fleeing Floods Embellish Land With Spectacular Webs. IFLScience. Published June 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proprietary Schools: Analysis of Comments Received From an Association of Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dylla AG. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic studies of bimetallic nanoparticles. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cain S. Followers Wanted. New York Times. March 24, 2017:SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUltrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
AbbreviationUltrasound Obstet. Gynecol.
ISSN (print)0960-7692
ISSN (online)1469-0705
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Reproductive Medicine
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles