How to format your references using the Trends in Food Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Food Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kappeler, P. M. (2013). Evolution. Why male mammals are monogamous. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6145), 469–470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wardil, L., & Hauert, C. (2014). Origin and structure of dynamic cooperative networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 5725.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dieterich, J., Cayol, V., & Okubo, P. (2000). The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano. Nature, 408(6811), 457–460.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lu, X., Wu, Z., Zhang, W., & Chen, L. (2014). Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect. Scientific Reports, 4, 4865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korst, J., & Pronk, V. (2006). Multimedia Storage and Retrieval. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Krüger, J., Nickolay, B., & Gaycken, S. (Eds.). (2013). The Secure Information Society: Ethical, Legal and Political Challenges. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gault, D., Cannell, K., Cimolini, P., D’Souza, M., & St. Hilaire, T. (2013). Applications and Navigation. In K. Cannell, P. Cimolini, M. D’Souza, & T. St. Hilaire (Eds.), Beginning Oracle Application Express 4.2 (pp. 55–95). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Food Science & Technology.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, December 12). A Peek Into Women’s Bedrooms In 2016, According To A Popular Sex-Advice App. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Taxpayer Information: Options Exist to Enable Data Sharing Between IRS and USCIS but Each Presents Challenges (No. GAO-06-100). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Senaga, K. A. (2016). Tasteless, cheap, and southern? The rise and decline of the farm-raised catfish industry (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2008, April 3). For the Self-Employed, a Year-Round System Will Smooth Tax Time. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kappeler, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kappeler, 2013; Wardil & Hauert, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wardil & Hauert, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Dieterich, Cayol, & Okubo, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lu, Wu, Zhang, & Chen, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Food Science & Technology
AbbreviationTrends Food Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0924-2244
ScopeFood Science

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